Canada Summit - Canada pledges billions to Indian and Inuit communities
NAME: CAN SUMMIT 20051126I TAPE: EF05/1048 IN_TIME: 10:18:38:06 DURATION: 00:01:35:19 SOURCES: CBC DATELINE: Kelowna BC, 25 Nov 2005 RESTRICTIONS: SHOTLIST: 1. Wide shot of summit meeting 2. Three-shot of participants at table 3. Pan across table 4. SOUNDBITE (English) Paul Martin, Canadian Prime Minister: "Aboriginal Canadians have no desire for more rhetoric." 5. Medium shot from behind table 6. SOUNDBITE (English) Paul Martin, Canadian Prime Minister: "We've taken a big step here today. And tomorrow we take another. And the day after that. And together, we will walk along the path to a better life for First Nations, Inuit, and the Meti Nation." 7. Wide shot from behind table 8. SOUNDBITE (English) Phil Fountaine, National Chief, Assembly of First Nations: "We've seen how far we can go in just two days. Imagine how far we can go in ten years. We will close the gap in the quality of life between our people and other Canadians. That will be our legacy to coming generations." 9. Medium shot across table 10. SOUNDBITE (English) Jose Kusugak, President, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami "But the eskimos, the real eskimos, the Inuit... The Inuit feel winners today at the first ministers meeting." 11. Pan of participants 12. SOUNDBITE (English) Ralph Klein, Premier of Alberta: "We need to make real progress. This meeting, Mr. Prime Minister has been an extremely good first step." 13. Close up of First Nations demonstrators 14. Wide shot of demonstrators chanting STORYLINE: Canada has unveiled a C$5bn (US $4.3bn; 2.4bn) programme to fight poverty in native communities, at the end of an unprecedented two-day summit. Prime Minister Paul Martin said gaps in wealth, health and education between aboriginal and other Canadians were "not acceptable in the 21st Century." Martin, provincial leaders and native groups have been debating the deal at the summit in British Columbia. Canada's one million aboriginals make up 3.3% of the population. But some details of the plan were not finalised, and it could be jeopardised if Martin's government falls in an forthcoming parliamentary vote. The package, the details of which were announced as the summit in Kelowna drew to a close, will be spent over ten years on programmes to improve housing, healthcare, education and economic development. "With this plan, we have made an important step forward in honouring our commitment to close the gap in the quality of life that now exists between aboriginal peoples and other Canadians," Martin told a news conference. It has been broadly welcomed by native Indian and Inuit groups attending the summit. "I know there are pessimists and cynics who think this process will fail. I disagree," said Phil Fontaine, head of the Assembly of First Nations, the country's leading native Indian organisation. Canada's aboriginals face problems such as housing shortages, higher teenage pregnancy and suicide rates, and lower life expectancy and school graduation rates than the non-aboriginal population. An estimated 40% of the aboriginal population lives in poverty, compared with 15.7% of the country as a whole. However, the start of the summit was marked by protests from some native groups, angry that aboriginals not living on reserved land would be ignored by the new programmes. "If this is going to be a watershed for aboriginal people, why haven't half the people living off the reserves been addressed?" asked Paul Laverte from the National Association of Aboriginal Friendship Centres. There have also been discussions about whether the federal or provincial governments will have the responsibility for healthcare programmes. The long-planned meeting comes as opposition parties are poised to bring down Mr Martin's minority government on Monday and force elections in January.
(ARCTIC EXHIBITION)
Thought to be Selected Originals from late 1940s material. <br/> <br/>Arctic Circle. <br/> <br/>Footage in confused order. <br/> <br/>Canadian expedition is sent to the Arctic Circle to obtain information about life in that climate. Foreign observers accompany the mission. Snowmobiles, sledges etc. Husky dogs pull sledge. Air force personnel have Comanche / Mohican Indian style hair cuts. Line of foreign observers. Foreign observer in peaked cap is Lieutenant Colonel P. I. Domashev. Foreign observers learn how to build an igloo. Various close up shots of Eskimos - Inuit people. Plane with skis being fuelled up. Air views of Arctic village. (Operation Musk Ox) <br/> <br/>Possibly connected with 46/15 - MD.
NEW POLAR BEAR EXHIBIT VNR
DETROIT ZOO OPENS WORLD'S LARGEST POLAR BEAR EXHIBIT
Life Line
Late afternoon backlit shot of three Inuit children and a woman on top of hill, ZOOM IN on child waving to camera (0:27).
Teacher on Living Among Inuits
An interview with Maggie MacDonnell, who was awarded the Global Teacher Prize for her work in an Inuit community, features daily life in the indigenous community. PLEASE NOTE News anchor and reporter image and audio, along with any commercial production excerpts, are for reference purposes only and are not clearable and cannot be used within your project.
The great bookshop: issue of October 09, 2019]
France 5
Eskimo Summer
Eskimo Summer. Canadian Eskimo life in the early 1940s. 1940s, Canada, Arctic, coastline, melting ice and snow, summer, Eskimos, Inuits, Alaska Natives, Eskimos carrying supplies and walking to summer fishing camp, Eskimo women setting up tents, Eskimo women carrying babies in their hoods, Eskimo men making stone dam fish trap in shallow water, fish entering dam and getting trapped, fishermen spearing fish in dam and flinging to boy on shore, fishermen anchoring net to shore and stretching it out across river, fishermen in kayak, fisherman in kayak catching fish with net, fishermen pulling white whale catch onto boat, fishermen pulling whale in net onto shore and cutting it up, Eskimo family eating meal of uncooked fish, ulu knife being used to cut up fish, ulu knife being used to cut up whale blubber, oil being pressed out of blubber, Eskimo pouring oil into stone lamp and lighting wick, Eskimos cutting up and hanging fish on lines to dry, Eskimo women chasing dogs away from hanging fish, harbor, Eskimos paddling out in kayaks to supply boat, Eskimo man fixing stalled boat engine, Eskimos unloading cargo onto shore, metal drums being filled with petrol and gasoline, Hudson Bay Company Trading Post, Eskimos trading furs for wooden stick currency, Eskimo splitting match down center, Eskimo using Primus stove, Caribou, Eskimo men looking through telescopes, Eskimo men stalking Caribou by imitating their movements and firing rifles, Eskimo man cutting up Caribou, Eskimo man laying out Caribou skin on ground, walruses in water and on rocks, polar bear in water, Eskimo man shooting and harpooning Polar Bear in water, Eskimo men hauling Polar Bear onto boat and shore, Eskimo men storing Polar Bear meat
A town in Greenland sponsors a dance with company of the U.S. Coast Guard Cutter, Northland.
A sign, bearing images of the American and Danish flags, reads, in Danish and English: "Dance Tonight." At bottom of the sign is a silhouette of the ship and the words: " U.S.C.G. Northland." Local Greenland native Inuit couples dance to the accompaniment of a local band of musicians. The location appears to be a small gymnasium, with a basketball hoop seen at one end. Several of the dancers appear to be U.S. Coast Guardsmen. A large group of spectators stand on a balcony overlooking the gym dance floor. Many young women are seen. Some enjoy refreshments. The hall is adorned with a huge American flag, in front of which a life preserver, from the ship, is suspended. Lettering on it reads: "Northland. U.S. Coast Guard." Location: Greenland. Date: 1940.
WORLD WAR II: US COAST GUARD ON FOREIGN SHORES (1940s)
The US Coast Guard in action during World War II. Images of US Coast Guard activity in support role during d War II in Europe and Asia.
Angotee / Land of the Long Day
Shots of Inuit family moving from igloo in spring, packing goods on sleighs. Various shots of family moving out across snow on way to summer quarters. CS of young Inuit boy. CS of Inuit man. Shots of ice floes in fantastic formation.
Greenland: a drifting youth
France 24
Canada Queen - Britain's Queen Elizabeth visits Eastern Arctic Region
TAPE: EF02/0848 IN_TIME: 03:18:36 DURATION: 3:32 SOURCES: CTV RESTRICTIONS: DATELINE: Iqaluit - 4 Oct 2002 SHOTLIST: 1. The Queen's plane taxiing on runway 2. Various of Queen and Duke walking off the plane and being greeted by dignitaries 3. Queen and Duke step out of a car to be greeted by the Canadian Prime Minister 4. Follows the Queen and Canadian PM Jean Chretien walking through crowd of local people 5. Pan down from a high shot of the official party 6. Close-up of Queen listening to Inuit cultural performance 7. Pull out from indigenous performers singing to Queen and Duke at welcoming reception 8. Close-up of the royal couple being applauded 9. Queen walks through the media into Legislative Assembly Building with government and Inuit officials 10. Various of local tribes woman lighting symbolic candle 11. Canadian PM gets up to speak 12. SOUNDBITE: (English) Jean Chretien, Canadian Prime Minister: "I am honoured to welcome Your Majesty and Your Royal Highness." 13. Wide of PM speaking 14. SOUNDBITE: (English) Jean Chretien, Canadian Prime Minister: ".... to Canada in this the golden jubilee year of your reign." 15. Slow zoom in on the Queen listening to speech 16. SOUNDBITE: (English) Jean Chretien, Canadian Prime Minister: "As always Canada has been awaiting your arrival with keen anticipation and the many times you have come to our shores, since your very first visit as Princess in 1951, Canadians have been inspired by your abiding grace and dignity by your dedication to ideas and duty that have so personified your life and by your never faltering commitment to others." 17. Wide with Prime Minister in foreground and Queen and Duke listening in the background 18. SOUNDBITE: (English) Jean Chretien, Canadian Prime Minister: "However in this Golden Jubilee year we welcome you with an even deeper sense of gratitude and appreciation your visit gives us a chance not only to celebrate but to reflect." 20. Various close-ups of Inuit elders listening with headphones STORYLINE: Britain's Queen Elizabeth II visited a remote region of north-west Canada on Friday as part of her on-going Golden Jubilee tour. The 76-year-old Royal shivered in sub-zero temperatures during a to Iqaluit in the Eastern Arctic Region, where Canada's Inuit people have established the country's newest outpost of democracy. A light dusting of snow greeted the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh as their Canadian Forces Airbus touched down in the bleak city of just 6,000 inhabitants. Formerly Frobisher Bay, on Baffin Island, Iqaluit is now the capital of Nunavut, once part of the vast Northwest Territories. The Inuit people are no longer referred to as Eskimos and land reform has given them their own legislature. Canada's Prime Minister Jean Chretien was on hand to welcome the Queen and Prince Philip to the remote community. It is the Queen's 21st official visit to Canada where she is also sovereign. And Her Majesty is no stranger to Iqaluit which she has visited twice before during her 50-year reign. Seated on a sealskin throne, the Queen congratulated the Inuit people on achieving regional self-government and dedicated the new Legislative Assembly Building.
The relationship between the realities of Inuit (Eskimo) life and the expression of that life in Eskimo art. Illustrated conversation between two men with long experience in the Arctic: James Houston, designer, expert on Eskimo life, author; and John Bockstoce, Arctic archaeologist. Many examples of Eskimo work, and film of Eskimo life and art. 1971. The relationship between the realities of Inuit (Eskimo) life and the expression of that life in Eskimo art. Illustrated conversation between two men with long experience in the Arctic, James Houston, designer, expert on Eskimo life, author; and John Bockstoce, Arctic archaeologist. Many examples of Eskimo work, and film of Eskimo life and art. Houston lived with Eskimos for years, learned their language, and is the author of "The White Dawn", the story of first contact with Europeans. Bockstoce has traveled the Arctic widely as an archaeologist. Both have collected Eskimo sculpture. They explain how the Eskimo idea of "art" is not to imagine what to make but to release possibilities inherent in the stone. There is no Eskimo word for "artist" as a creator. Film clips illustrating Eskimo lifestyles and environment are from the famous 1921 Flaherty documentary "Nanook of the North" and a contemporary Canadian Broadcasting Corporation study "The Living Stone." Houston and Bockstoce discuss the films and show objects carved by Eskimos including a pipe, decorations, a walrus tusk, games of getting a pin into various holes of a carved bear's skull, a mobile of a harpooned seal. Eskimos make carvings while talking to friends… "Art while being sociable is part of art…" Eskimo snow glasses made from caribou antler and a polar bear. Eskimos try to find "what is hidden in the inner piece of material and find its vitality." "Carver knows nothing when he starts." … "real person and soul of a person in a single image." 28 mins. Produced and Directed by John Musilli. Air Date: 7/18/71. James Houston, designer, expert on Eskimo life, author. John Bockstoce, archaeologist.
Marie-Hélène Cousineau
Créteil International Women's Film Festival
Wilkinson Story
Interior shots of Inuit family in their house, chatting and drinking coffee with white guest. Exterior shots of Inuit children sliding, of woman chopping meat for dogs, of woman chopping ice for water. Interior shots of white cook baking bread, putting coal into oven, getting help from Inuit girl, of girl tasting bread with delight, of Inuit men and girl having tea with cook. Exterior shots of Inuit woman scrapping skin.
Canada Summit Thurs - Canada summit coverage 24 Nov
NAME: CAN SUMMIT 20051125I TAPE: EF05/1046 IN_TIME: 10:32:19:11 DURATION: 00:02:14:21 SOURCES: CBC DATELINE: Kelowna, BC, 24 Nov 2005 RESTRICTIONS: SHOTLIST 24 November 2005 1. Wide of summit 2. Pull out from feather 3. Attendees 4. Close up of attendee 5. SOUNDBITE (English) Paul Martin, Canadian Prime Minister: "These gaps between aboriginal Canadians and other Canadians, and between aboriginal men and women, are not acceptable in the 21st century. They never were acceptable." 6. Territorial leaders 7. Close up of attendee 8. Close up of aboriginal leader 9. SOUNDBITE (English) Phil Fountaine, National Chief, Assembly of First Nations: "Poverty among first nations can be eliminated. This goal is achievable within the near, not the distant, future. And our achievement will benefit Canada as a whole." File 10. Man working with hose 11. Wide of aboriginal communities 24 November 2005 12. SOUNDBITE (English) Gordon Campbell, Premier of British Columbia: "It is a relationship that speaks to a shared vision of who we are and what we want to achieve together for our children and for future generations. This is our moment of truth." File - 1983 13. Pan of summit on aboriginal rights from 20 years ago 14. Smoking pipe 15. Zoom in to two-shot with George Erasmus 24 November 2005 16. SOUNDBITE (English) George Erasmus, Former Chief, Assembly of First Nations: "They are extremely important. If we can deal with those issues, we will have a strong foundation to move forward from." 17. Pan of demonstration 18. Close up of signs 19. SOUNDBITE (English) Peter Dinsdale, National Association of Friendship Centres: "The reality is that first nations, dealing with school boards, bringing up provincial standards, aren't going to help people in downtown Vancouver who dropped out of high school." 20. Summit attendee 21. SOUNDBITE (English) Joe Handley, Government Leader of Northwest Territories: "What happens if there is an election to the commitments that have been made?" 22. Paul Martin 23. SOUNDBITE (English) Phil Fountaine, National Chief, Assembly of First Nations: "I think it's going to be very difficult for any government to retreat from any commitments that are made here." 24. Wide of Paul Martin STORYLINE Canada is expected to unveil a four (b) billion Canadian dollars federal programme on Friday to empower Canada's native Indian and northern Inuit communities with tools to help lift them out of poverty and disease on their neglected native lands. Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin and the premiers of Canada's 13 provinces and territories are participating in an unprecedented, two-day summit with five organisations representing the nearly one (m) million aboriginal peoples of the North American nation, namely Indian tribes known as First Nations and Inuits, aboriginal Canadians of the northeastern and Arctic territories. The federal government currently spends upward of eight (b) billion Canadian dollars a year for aboriginal groups, but problems abound. Native reserves are dramatically short of housing and safe drinking water, their high school graduation rate is just over half the national average and life expectancy for Indians is five to seven years lower than for non-aboriginals. The infant mortality rate is 20 per cent higher among First Nations, suicide rates are threefold and teen pregnancies are nine times higher than the national average.
Japan Whaling - Request for aboriginal whaling rights defeated again
TAPE: EF02/0439 IN_TIME: 07:33:28 DURATION: 4:11 SOURCES: APTN RESTRICTIONS: DATELINE: Shimonoseki - 24 May 2002/File SHOTLIST: Shimonoseki City - 24 May 2002 1. Wide shot of pro and anti-whaling rallies outside IWC venue 3. Wide shot of IWC venue 5. Wide shot of IWC session 6. Various of delegates 7. Various of delegates voting for the quotas of the aboriginal subsistence whaling 8. SOUNDBITE: (English) Rolland Schimitten, US Delegate to IWC "That was the most unjust, unkind, unfair vote that was ever taken. That vote literally denied people to feed their families. We have Eskimos calling, asking their leaders 'Will we get food this year?' and that vote definitely cinched it. The views from Japan and others is 'No they will not.' There is no scientific reason that they should be denied this. This is one of the most healthy stocks, this is a stock that is increasing and these are people that have played by the rules. And what do they get after 25 years of being members? They get nothing to feed their families." 9. SOUNDBITE: (English) George Ahmaogak, Sr Mayor of the North Slope Borough, Alaska "Keep in mind this is not commercial, this for subsistence purposes and we met those requirements at the International Whaling Commission for well over 20 years and now with the decision that was made as of today we are very disappointed that this vote came down on us. We will look at options and work with the United States government and where we go from there." 10. Australian delegate at meeting 11. Denmark IWC delegate 12. Russian IWC delegate 13. Japanese IWC delegate 14. SOUNDBITE: (English) Jim McLay, New Zealand Delegate to IWC "Frankly we reviewed it as an attempt to try to trade off a quest for 50 minke whales for prosperous coastal communities in Japan against the needs of isolated communities inside the Arctic Circle. That was fundamentally wrong. It was an attempt to say Japanese prosperous towns are morally equivalent to isolated Inuit and Chukotka communities. Everybody knows that it is wrong." 15. SOUNDBITE: (Japanese) Masayuki Komatsu, Japanese Delegate to IWC "Our proposal (of the coastal whaling) is based on the scientific data and the need and life of the local people. So, our request is very close to or totally identical with the proposal for the US aboriginal whaling. Therefore, I believe that the US criticism of us is totally inappropriate." 16. SOUNDBITE: (English) Simon Reddy, Political Advisor, Greenpeace International "I think it has been very disappointing. This IWC has to be the most acrimonious, the most heated and probably the worst ever example of political manipulation by Japan, Norway and the countries that are voting our have been bought to vote with them." Shimonoseki City - May 23, 2002 17. Various of whale statue STORYLINE: A request by the United States and Russia for the International Whaling Commission to renew quotas allowing their native peoples to hunt whales was rejected for the second time in two days Friday, the last day of the session, falling short by one vote. The quotas for aboriginal whalers have been at the center of a disagreement between nations for and against whaling that has delayed decisions on the agenda and raised concerns about a possible deadlock at the IWC annual meeting in this former Japanese whaling hub, Shimonoseki City, 330 kilometers (205 miles) west of Tokyo. Before this week's votes, such quotas had never been denied since the body began ruling on aboriginal whaling in the early 1970s. U.S. delegates on Thursday asked that the American Makah Indians be allowed an annual catch quota of four gray whales and the Inuit Eskimos' 56 bowhead whales for five years. Russia had requested that the Chukotka people living in its northeast be allowed to hunt 120 gray whales a year. The new U.S/Russian proposal, which would have reduced the Eskimos' haul by one bowhead whale, received 32 votes in favor and 11 opposed, one short of the three-fourths majority needed to pass. Japan has led opposition to the proposal, criticizing as hypocritical the U.S. request and saying that if such kills are approved, Japan should be granted the right to coastal whaling. In closed-door talks late Thursday, the United States and Japan seemed close to a compromise. U.S. delegates also appeared to have swayed other nations initially opposed to the quotas. But when the new aboriginal quotas request went to a vote Friday, Japan, Mongolia and several Caribbean nations again voted against it. Japanese officials opposed the requests after Japan was denied the right Tuesday to let four coastal whaling towns catch a total of 50 minke whales from nearby waters. American officials say aboriginal whaling differs from Japan's coastal whaling because there is no commercial benefit. On Thursday, the IWC rejected Japan's proposal to lift the ban on commercial whaling imposed in 1986. Japan, which has been trying to get the ban revoked for years, claims whale populations have recovered enough to sustain limited catches. It seems there was no victory for both party-pro and anti whaling nations for this years session. The stagnation of the conference displayed the political factors even more strongly operates in order to determine the direction of the IWC, according to the Greenpeace International. The debate will continue in Berlin, Germany, the venue of the IWC next year.
Bartlett Expedition
HA over rocky Arctic terrain. MLS hawk perched on rock. Cut to closer shot of same. HALS of Arctic terrain, lakes. Cut to waterfalls, CU's of water. Shipboard shots of expedition ship: The Effie M Morrissey, Inuit sailboat sidling to ship, Inuits clambering aboard for a visit. Shot of Inuits with Captain Bartlett on ship. Sequence on Caucasian man explaining something to elderly Inuit about an ivory tusk, elderly Inuit working on tusk. Shot of final result: Inuit jewelry and statuette. Interior shots of room, anthropologists measuring cranium of Inuit. Shot of Inuit men listening to music. Cut to MS of spring wound gramophone. Cut to Inuit encampment, skin tent, family sitting in front of smae, campfire. More shipboard shots of expedition ship, of gull landing on lifeboat, taking off, floating along side ship. Final shots of Inuits in sailboat preparing to shove off.
[A Shishmaref]
France 24
[The end of the import of seal furs in Europe]
A2 / France 2
Angotee / Land of the Long Day
Numerous shots of care given to newborn child. Shots of Inuit mother pre-chewing meat, feeding it to child. Shots of mother nursing baby. Shots of mother feeding cereal to baby. Shots of Inuit father playing with baby.
VIRGIN EARTH: INTERVIEW
VIRGIN EARTH: INTERVIEW TAPE FOUR INTERVIEW ON MOUNTAINSIDE (mostly on two shot) JK is Jeffrey Kofman ML is Mike Libecki 04:02:14 (Two shot) JK: I'm trying to understand, I get the sense of adventure, but what motivates you to push it to such extremes? ML: I think it's evolved over the years. I mean its always been, after I started doing some of the trips and a lot of the trips over the years, what I really find the most attractive is the mystery and the most exotic culture, the wonderful unique flora fauna and of course, obviously the main goal of these big huge walls to climb or deserts to cross; even if it's a reconnaissance maybe I don't even know if there is a wall or what kind of mountains are out there cause the only information I have are maps and you know maps can be very incorrect as far as typography. But it's the mystery, from the food I'm going to eat such as ox penis or freshly speared possum; exotic foods, exotic people. The wonder of thinking about getting caught in a storm that's negative 20 degrees for seven days on the side of a wall. I mean there's many, many things I could talk about, but it's the mystery. The mystery. 040323 I may be with you on the possum, but I'm not sure on the ox penis and I'm pretty sure I'm not with you on the storm at minus 20. ML: Well for example like the ox penis, exotic foods, I take a lot of anti-biotics. 040337 JK: Was it good? ML: It was quite horrible. And if I thought about it long enough, I could probably make myself sick. It wasn't that great. But it's a wonderful experience, it's a great memory. It just an example of the mystery waiting on these big expeditions. 040352: JK: When you talk about mystery, would another word for that be curiosity? ML: I don't think so. Sure I'm curious, but just thinking about---the word mystery in itself that just defines it. I really don't know what is going to happen at anytime. Injuries, anything. I don't know what's going to happen. 040412: JK: You're consumed by discovering the unknown. ML: That's an easy way to say it. JK:Is that a fair way? ML: It's a very fair way. I've always just defined it as mystery because that word in itself really describes it for me. 040426: JK: Can you identify when in your life it hit you? ML: I think after my first trip. I think after my first couple big expeditions or just travels. I really got the travel bug and I was climbing and I started climbing a lot more. And all these things sort of merged in together and even maybe a little dash of rebellion as well. To do something that is totally different and totally exotic and something for my little hometown who had never even heard of being possible. And over the years it has just become sort of an obsession to go out and see this beautiful planet. Bottom line. 040508: JK: Clearly an obsession. Unqualified, right? ML: Oh yeah. Definitely. Maybe an addiction. This is what I love to do. There's two things it's this lifestyle of adventure and exploring the planet and climbing. There's that and there's being a father and having a daughter. There's two things that I hold of highest priority and of highest of just doing in my life. (coughing in background) 040548: JK: What is your hometown again? ML: Clovis, California. Little cowboy town. 040556: JK: That first trip. Take me back to that. Where did you go? How old were you? And what was the moment? ML: Well my first trip, well my first real sort of adventure was going to Japan and doing a bicycle tour around Japan alone. And that gave me this sense of coming from the states and going to Japan was a big culture shock for me and it was my first trip out of the country and it really gave me this sense of different people and food and culture and tradition. And then shortly after that I went to do Denali, up in Alaska and then to Baffin Island. 040636: How old are you at this point? ML: Let's see, I have to think about that for a minute. 040642: Well what year are we talking? ML: 97 JK: So 1997, ten years ago. And you're 34 now? ML: Yeah, so I was 24. Should we start that over? JK: What made you do that first Northern trip? ML: To Baffin Island? JK: Yeah. ML: So my first, aside from Japan, aside from going to do Denali, I went on this expedition to Baffin Island where some of the largest rock walls in the world exist. And that was my first real step into completely virgin territory. Or complete utter wilderness where there is no rescue possibility. Way out there, climbing these big vertical walls that no one's touched before. That was the first one and it hit me hard. When I got home I just kept thinking how am I going to get back out there. And so I ended up doing 5 more trips around Baffin Island within 5 years, as well as other trips between those. I just got the bug of adventure and travel and mystery and climbing. And I had the energy; the absolute enthusiasm behind me. I just couldn't stop. 040856: JK: I'm trying to figure out where you get the drive-the depth of drive. A lot of people have energy and perseverance and tenacity. But to go through what you go through-where do you think it comes from? ML: You know, when I first started doing these trips I'm just really motivated naturally. I just have an enthusiasm, I describe it as organic. Its just here and I'm really excited to work and move and research these areas. It's just a natural enthusiasm behind all of it. You know, I'm doing two or three trips a year and I'm just really excited. It just really makes me happy. The bare bones of it, it makes me happy. I get excited to do it. I'm motivated. It's just a natural feeling. I'm not really sure how to explain it. 040945: JK: When you're looking at one of these vast rock faces and you're thinking, how am I going to do this? Or when you're halfway up, where do you find the energy to just keep pushing? ML: Well it's living in the ultimate now. Especially, I mean every part of the expedition; I've explained it as living in the ultimate now. Experiencing in the ultimate moment of reality, where you're so involved, you're so entwined in what you're doing. It's so exotic that you're not thinking in the past or the future, you're not thinking about the past or the future, you're really in this moment of just intensity. I look back on all those times and I can't wait to get more of those it's just a wonderful. it's just a ride of ultimate reality. I don't know how else to explain it. 041037 JK: And you can look at that rock face and say, "I'm exhausted and I feel sick and its cold, it's snowing, but I'm just going to make myself keep going"? ML: Sure, and it's not always that way. I mean a lot of the tine you're just not exhausted and you're in good shape and you're training all the time and you're ready to go for this and to get to the top. And you know what it takes to get there when you are a climber who's looking at this 4,000 foot wall that you have to climb. And if you're not training mentally and physically and you're not prepared I don't think you're going to have much enthusiasm behind you. So it's a year-round lifestyle to be able to do this kind of stuff. I mean you can't just. you have to be prepared for it. For every expedition I find, it becomes training. It just becomes training for the next. And not one that I've thought, this big trip is coming and we're going to do this, and this and this. It's more training. And it becomes training and training for the next. Very interesting staircase so to speak that I've been walking up and trying to bring out and learning so much about each trip. 041135 JK: That's one steep staircase. ML: At times it's pretty steep. JK: Is this drive part of your everyday life? Are you a guy that wakes up everyday before sunrise because it's so exciting to face the day? ML: Not all the time, I mean, I don't have a lot of sleep every night. I stay really, really busy. I'm usually up pretty early and pretty fired up for life. Not just about climbing and expeditions and adventure, but my daughter. I'm very involved in my daughters life and when I'm home in my everyday life I work out at my home. I'm a soccer coach, my daughter and I do violin and piano, swimming lessons, we ski. I'm a dedicated father and so I sort of feel that I have these two wonderful priorities in my life and its keeping my lifestyle and my career for myself and then also being the most amazing father I can be. I just won father of the year award at her school and so I'm motivated for the things that I'm really into. You know, I can't force it; it's the things that I'm naturally most enthusiastic about. 041245: Does that rival climbing a 4,000 foot cliff, winning father of the year award? ML: Oh by far. Oh, it blows it out of the water. Winning father of the year award is probably my greatest honor rather than spending 30 days on a wall and finally getting to the summit, and that's thirty days vertical and sleeping from a port-a-ledge, a little cot that hangs from the wall. My fatherhood accomplishments blow everything else away. When I see my daughter, for example at Disneyland and she's seeing the real Ariel. The real Ariel mermaid, I'm just crying in joy. To see this or to say, "Daddy, daddy, I'm skiing all by myself" when she's skiing down the hill at three. It blows it out of the water. 041332 JK: Is she going to go climbing with you one day? ML: You know, maybe she will. I really don't care if she does or not. I'd like for her to be able to travel and see the world, I'd like for her to discover and learn appreciation for being a global citizen for seeing different cultures and just being a part of the global citizenship of this world. I'd really like that I hope she gets to travel a lot. But that's definitely my goal. Climbing, I don't really care if she climbs or not. If she wants to I'll support her, but I don't really have any goals for that. 041405 JK: It's hard to understand how you as a self-confessed addicted adventurer, (yeah) extreme adventurer, (sure) and a proud father of a little girl, can reconcile those two lives? ML: It's got a lot of challenges but the rewards are absolutely amazing. And you know, in the beginning when I was doing trips and she was born, she has a really great mom and family that would help take care of her when I went on the trips, but then when I'm home, I'm home 24/7 and I go to the house and I'm mister mom. I stay home. You know, in any life there's a lot of challenges and rewards and it's actually worked out pretty well. 041449 JK: You must run into people who say if you truly loved you're daughter, you wouldn't take these kinds of risks. ML: Its funny you say that, I've never heard that once. Never. They've asked how does your daughter affect the difficulty level of climbing, but you know one of the things is that pursuing this lifestyle and keeping these dreams alive that I've had, its been very difficult to do all of these trips and to keep a lifestyle going. It's everything I've had to keep it going. I have no trust fund. I mean it's a lot of work. I have to be really creative to fund it. To be physically and mentally trained and stay active. So I want my daughter to see that if you have a dream, if there's something you want to do, that maybe not everyone, maybe they don't agree with it, you can do it. You can follow it. You can go it. I want her to see that if you really want it in you're heart you can do whatever you want to do. In today's society and today's pressures, and who knows what its going to be like when she's 18 or 20. 041552 JK: What do you think when you look at the so safe, cautious lives which so many of us are leading these days? Afraid to go on vacations, considering a cruise ship a major adventure. ML: You know I try not to worry about other people too much. I try not to be too judgmental. Honestly I don't really think about it that often. You know a lot of the ways I think, sometimes are sort of criticized. You know, I believe that death and or old age is coming. We sort of have to live a sweet life. We can't be too stressed out and worried all the time. We have to think about our future, but we have to live in the now. We have to live in the moment and enjoy what we have. I mean tragedy is real, it can happen at any time as any of us know, but I'm really sold that death and or old age is coming and we have to live sweet. We have to do that. I mean it's almost the responsibility of a human to have this live to have to do that. 041654: And if your death comes on the side of a 4,000 foot cliff rather than crossing the street in Salt Lake City? ML: There you go. That's life. But you know, I don't believe in that. Climbing is 100 percent safe in my mind. There's some rock fall and some tragedies that can happen, but you know, most climbing accidents are human error. And you know, I'm very mathematical and the gear I have is really, really, really strong and tested. And I believe that if you are really focused and you know, climbing and adventure can be very safe. It's not a death wish like some people have thought about it. It's a life wish. 041739: So let's go through some of your trips and I don't know if you want to go through in a specific order. But let's be sure to talk about the ones that we have footage of. Talk to me about going to Antarctica, what are we seeing? ML: Antarctica is a real special place. And for me it was really a big dream come true. It seemed like it was going to be a real pinnacle expedition for me. All the stuff I've been doing, everything that I've learned sort of bringing it to that trip. Because it is really an area where there is no rescue possibility. You're on your own once you get out there. I had to go through some channels of having to go through the Russians and going through the Russian base and really working with them with a lot of red tape. There are a lot of things you have to do as a US citizen with the National Science Foundation, the Environment Protection Agency, the State Department. So there are a lot of variables out there before you even get to climb. And so Antarctica, the last two times I've been out there has been 24 hours of sunlight like one long day for two months. The sun stays up in the sky and goes around and around. You know it gets really cold. It gets down to negative 25, negative 30 out there. And when it's that cold it's hard to be climbing a big wall. Its one thing to survive, its another o go out there with your camera and video cameras and climb big walls and go skiing. It's just an amazing place. Its utter solitude. 041915: So how long were you there? How did you get around? Where did you go?ML: On one trip I was there for a little over 2 months with a really good friend of mine and definitely my best climbing partner. And we went out there and we did a bunch of skiing and kite skiing and did some work for NASA. We helped to fix a little unmanned weather station they are testing out there. But our goal was to climb because there are these huge vertical walls that are out there that look like big swords like big sort of flames that are frozen in time and huge 2, 3, 4,000 foot granite walls. 041952: So these aren't ice walls.ML: No they're granite walls. Rock walls that are as steep as could be. JK: And you went up these things? ML: Yeah, we went out, we did a bunch of climbing and we found one big one to focus on and we climbed it. JK: And how long did that take? ML: It took us about 16 days to get up it and down. So we spent about 2 weeks going up and living on the side of a wall. JK: Time must take on a different sensation when you're spending 16 days going up a rock face and its 24 hours of sun. ML: Oh it's magnificent. And it was just unbelievable, anytime you would look towards the sun, you know everything is frozen all the time and there is just sort of this breeze throwing ice crystals. And so anytime you would look towards the sun it was like there was some sort a wizard there, casting these magic crystals in the air. I mean it's just an example of some of the fantasy life things that happen when you're out on these expeditions, it's just amazing. 042052 JK: What do you eat when you're on a two month expedition? Hiking and climbing and so forth? ML: If it's cold, if it's artic or Antarctic, it's always cold, so you're always burning calories. So you bring a lot of butter, a lot of cheese, a lot of salami. A lot of things with a lot of calories. I think we brought a thousand energy bars and candy bars. I mean bags and bags of food. So you're just constantly eating. 042118 JK: Did you get dog sleds? ML: No we went to the Russian base from Capetown, South Africa and then from there they have these real small old planes that they take us out a couple hundred miles and dropped us off. And then they picked us up later. 042131 JK: So you had a base camp? ML: We had a base camp, yeah. We had to move it once to get to the walls, but we had a lot of time out there to ski and climb and to really explore the area. 042141 JK: Are you skiing, are you cross-country skiing? How are you getting across the flats? ML: It's kind of like cross-country skiing, yeah. JK: And you are using a parachute as well though? ML: Yeah, we have kite skis. It's basically a kite that pulls you along on skis. JK: That sounds fun ML: Oh its fantastic, yeah, it's great. JK: Is it hard? ML: It can be in really high winds. But in moderate winds if you know how to ski, you can pretty much get one and learn how to do it. I mean it's like downhill skiing almost, in a sense. You know, you're carving turns; you're carving, so if you have a flat surface, Antarctica is the best place to do it probably. 042216 JK: Did you get into trouble down there? ML: In what sense? JK: In terms of weather or sickness? ML: We had some pretty intense wind storms. But we never had any problems. We never got sick down there. I mean Antarctica is really great because it's clean, it's pristine. You know, you compare it to Kyrgistan or Madagascar where you get really sick and you almost expect it. So when you compare a lot of the areas for the trips there are a lot of ups and downs for all of them. Some place you have a tarantula in the crack, whereas in Antarctica, your feet and fingers are numb the entire time. So there are always pros and cons. 042253: Are you fighting frostbite all the time? ML: Not all the time. No. Because it's the Antarctic summer, it can stay pretty nice. Usually doesn't get above freezing, but in the sun it feels pretty nice. But when you have some cold spells and you're in the negative temperatures; when you're climbing, you're in a harness and you're hanging from a wall, you're circulation isn't as good. You're feet get pretty darn numb. I got a little bit of frost bite, actually both trips to Antarctica. 042320 JK: So take me from the bottom of the world to the top of the world to Greenland. That was a very different adventure. ML: Yeah, I mean. The Artic in the summer is a little bit warmer. Not as cold compared to the Antarctic summer. (PUSH TO ISO) Yeah there's a lot if Inuit as there's no local people in Antarctica. There's just nothing there besides just stations of the governments. But Greenland, there's these wonderful Greenlandic and Inuit people, I've made some really great friends there who I still stay in touch with. You know there are polar bears and seals and I've done a lot of hunting there where I've eaten a lot of seals and polar bear and whatnot with the locals who usually take me out by boat or however we have to get to the walls. 042410 (two shot0 JK: When you went on your major climb there, tell me what you had to do to get there. Tell me a bit about the climates and the difficulties that you've had to deal with. ML: Well I've done five trips to Greenland and a couple of them have been a little more intense than the others. A couple solo trips where I go completely alone. I'll go meet with some of the local Inuit and one particular trip I was taken by boat to this amazing sea ice. We ate a lot of seal and a polar bear on the way and I was just respecting their local ways of how they live and it's really nice to be taken and to be taken a part of a local culture like that. But when they drop me off, I'm alone, it's solo. On that particular trip it was about 250 miles from their village. From their small town. 042500: And you're further north? You're at the top of Greenland? ML: On this particular one I was east Greenland JK: What's your objective? ML: Well, this is eastern Greenland and I became really inspired by Greenland after my first trip there and so I contacted the Danish government and said hey, I'd love to get some maps of the east coast of Greenland. It's really remote, and it's very untouched and not a lot of information there. But a lot of beautiful contours of big steep granite walls. And you know, that part of the world is old glaciated, carved valleys. Just like Yosemite Valley, it's got El Capitan. And if you find some place that has the same history, you think, oh it's got to have huge granite walls there. So I got, 60 some odd maps from the Danish government and they were nice enough to send me some aerial photos of all the east coast of Greenland. All original prints. All were taken, you can tell, from some sort of military camera, some kind of government cameras with a just a lot of features on them, marking out where they are, etc... So a friend of a friend of mine put in a good word there and so I just started exploring east Greenland and two of trips I didn't even know what was there beforehand. No photos no nothing. I just knew on the maps. Hired the Inuit to take me out. And hundreds of miles by boat and these remote fjords. 042640 JK : Did you point to the photographs on the maps and say, "that ridge there, I want to see that one?" ML: No, I would show them on the map, here's the fjord I want to go to, but there not enough detail to actually pick out a wall or a peak. At least the fjord I would want to know where I would want to go. 042700 JK: And you figured that typography was going to give you something of what you wanted? ML: The typography looked really enticing for what I like. It looked like big steep walls that were carved by glaciers who knows how many millions of years ago. JK: And when you got there? ML: Stunning. World class, huge, giant walls. 042716: When you say giant, how high are we talking? ML: From the ocean, elevation actually from the water, actually 5 or 6,000 feet tall. Huge, huge. JK: And what did you scale? ML: And these are to the very summits so JK: So let me absorb that, we're talking a mile high of a flat shear wall? ML: Sure. Well, for example there is a little bit of scree and talus terrain that you have to walk up. One of the climbs I did it was about 4400 feet tall. So it worked out pretty nice. 042750 JK: How long does it take you to scale 4400 feet? ML: Well I was alone and that particular trip took about 20 days. So, you know. I have to shuttle a lot of gear up there and you know I had a few storm days, some pretty major storm days. It's kind of for me it's sort of the normal situations. 042814 JK: Take me to the moment in Greenland when you were scaling a rock face and you had to face a lot of adversity and you had a lot of rough weather and delirium. Talk me through that. ML: There was a trip there, this was 2002, and I had gotten halfway up the climb and I was on a real big natural ledge and there was a real big natural rock ledge and I could set up my tent there. And so its really steep and I get up to a nice ledge and I've got about halfway more to go, another 200 feet. And I got hit by this storm and the snow from the wall, the snow and the ice kept piling on the ledge, piling on the ledge. Just burying my tent, collapsing my tent and I couldn't sleep. And so for almost three days the storm was just hammering and hammering and hammering. And we're right on the Arctic and Greenland coast; right on the artic ocean here and the weather can slam storms on you. So I didn't sleep for almost 3 days and just every time I would try to go to sleep I was just in utter delirium. And I had these nightmares that seemed. You know you wake up in the morning and you have a dream and it seems so real and everyone's had one and its like that times ten and you're sort of half awake, half asleep and I had some interesting nightmares out there.
VIRGIN EARTH: INTERVIEW
VIRGIN EARTH: INTERVIEW TAPE FOUR INTERVIEW ON MOUNTAINSIDE (mostly on two shot) JK is Jeffrey Kofman ML is Mike Libecki 04:02:14 (Two shot) JK: I'm trying to understand, I get the sense of adventure, but what motivates you to push it to such extremes? ML: I think it's evolved over the years. I mean its always been, after I started doing some of the trips and a lot of the trips over the years, what I really find the most attractive is the mystery and the most exotic culture, the wonderful unique flora fauna and of course, obviously the main goal of these big huge walls to climb or deserts to cross; even if it's a reconnaissance maybe I don't even know if there is a wall or what kind of mountains are out there cause the only information I have are maps and you know maps can be very incorrect as far as typography. But it's the mystery, from the food I'm going to eat such as ox penis or freshly speared possum; exotic foods, exotic people. The wonder of thinking about getting caught in a storm that's negative 20 degrees for seven days on the side of a wall. I mean there's many, many things I could talk about, but it's the mystery. The mystery. 040323 I may be with you on the possum, but I'm not sure on the ox penis and I'm pretty sure I'm not with you on the storm at minus 20. ML: Well for example like the ox penis, exotic foods, I take a lot of anti-biotics. 040337 JK: Was it good? ML: It was quite horrible. And if I thought about it long enough, I could probably make myself sick. It wasn't that great. But it's a wonderful experience, it's a great memory. It just an example of the mystery waiting on these big expeditions. 040352: JK: When you talk about mystery, would another word for that be curiosity? ML: I don't think so. Sure I'm curious, but just thinking about---the word mystery in itself that just defines it. I really don't know what is going to happen at anytime. Injuries, anything. I don't know what's going to happen. 040412: JK: You're consumed by discovering the unknown. ML: That's an easy way to say it. JK:Is that a fair way? ML: It's a very fair way. I've always just defined it as mystery because that word in itself really describes it for me. 040426: JK: Can you identify when in your life it hit you? ML: I think after my first trip. I think after my first couple big expeditions or just travels. I really got the travel bug and I was climbing and I started climbing a lot more. And all these things sort of merged in together and even maybe a little dash of rebellion as well. To do something that is totally different and totally exotic and something for my little hometown who had never even heard of being possible. And over the years it has just become sort of an obsession to go out and see this beautiful planet. Bottom line. 040508: JK: Clearly an obsession. Unqualified, right? ML: Oh yeah. Definitely. Maybe an addiction. This is what I love to do. There's two things it's this lifestyle of adventure and exploring the planet and climbing. There's that and there's being a father and having a daughter. There's two things that I hold of highest priority and of highest of just doing in my life. (coughing in background) 040548: JK: What is your hometown again? ML: Clovis, California. Little cowboy town. 040556: JK: That first trip. Take me back to that. Where did you go? How old were you? And what was the moment? ML: Well my first trip, well my first real sort of adventure was going to Japan and doing a bicycle tour around Japan alone. And that gave me this sense of coming from the states and going to Japan was a big culture shock for me and it was my first trip out of the country and it really gave me this sense of different people and food and culture and tradition. And then shortly after that I went to do Denali, up in Alaska and then to Baffin Island. 040636: How old are you at this point? ML: Let's see, I have to think about that for a minute. 040642: Well what year are we talking? ML: 97 JK: So 1997, ten years ago. And you're 34 now? ML: Yeah, so I was 24. Should we start that over? JK: What made you do that first Northern trip? ML: To Baffin Island? JK: Yeah. ML: So my first, aside from Japan, aside from going to do Denali, I went on this expedition to Baffin Island where some of the largest rock walls in the world exist. And that was my first real step into completely virgin territory. Or complete utter wilderness where there is no rescue possibility. Way out there, climbing these big vertical walls that no one's touched before. That was the first one and it hit me hard. When I got home I just kept thinking how am I going to get back out there. And so I ended up doing 5 more trips around Baffin Island within 5 years, as well as other trips between those. I just got the bug of adventure and travel and mystery and climbing. And I had the energy; the absolute enthusiasm behind me. I just couldn't stop. 040856: JK: I'm trying to figure out where you get the drive-the depth of drive. A lot of people have energy and perseverance and tenacity. But to go through what you go through-where do you think it comes from? ML: You know, when I first started doing these trips I'm just really motivated naturally. I just have an enthusiasm, I describe it as organic. Its just here and I'm really excited to work and move and research these areas. It's just a natural enthusiasm behind all of it. You know, I'm doing two or three trips a year and I'm just really excited. It just really makes me happy. The bare bones of it, it makes me happy. I get excited to do it. I'm motivated. It's just a natural feeling. I'm not really sure how to explain it. 040945: JK: When you're looking at one of these vast rock faces and you're thinking, how am I going to do this? Or when you're halfway up, where do you find the energy to just keep pushing? ML: Well it's living in the ultimate now. Especially, I mean every part of the expedition; I've explained it as living in the ultimate now. Experiencing in the ultimate moment of reality, where you're so involved, you're so entwined in what you're doing. It's so exotic that you're not thinking in the past or the future, you're not thinking about the past or the future, you're really in this moment of just intensity. I look back on all those times and I can't wait to get more of those it's just a wonderful. it's just a ride of ultimate reality. I don't know how else to explain it. 041037 JK: And you can look at that rock face and say, "I'm exhausted and I feel sick and its cold, it's snowing, but I'm just going to make myself keep going"? ML: Sure, and it's not always that way. I mean a lot of the tine you're just not exhausted and you're in good shape and you're training all the time and you're ready to go for this and to get to the top. And you know what it takes to get there when you are a climber who's looking at this 4,000 foot wall that you have to climb. And if you're not training mentally and physically and you're not prepared I don't think you're going to have much enthusiasm behind you. So it's a year-round lifestyle to be able to do this kind of stuff. I mean you can't just. you have to be prepared for it. For every expedition I find, it becomes training. It just becomes training for the next. And not one that I've thought, this big trip is coming and we're going to do this, and this and this. It's more training. And it becomes training and training for the next. Very interesting staircase so to speak that I've been walking up and trying to bring out and learning so much about each trip. 041135 JK: That's one steep staircase. ML: At times it's pretty steep. JK: Is this drive part of your everyday life? Are you a guy that wakes up everyday before sunrise because it's so exciting to face the day? ML: Not all the time, I mean, I don't have a lot of sleep every night. I stay really, really busy. I'm usually up pretty early and pretty fired up for life. Not just about climbing and expeditions and adventure, but my daughter. I'm very involved in my daughters life and when I'm home in my everyday life I work out at my home. I'm a soccer coach, my daughter and I do violin and piano, swimming lessons, we ski. I'm a dedicated father and so I sort of feel that I have these two wonderful priorities in my life and its keeping my lifestyle and my career for myself and then also being the most amazing father I can be. I just won father of the year award at her school and so I'm motivated for the things that I'm really into. You know, I can't force it; it's the things that I'm naturally most enthusiastic about. 041245: Does that rival climbing a 4,000 foot cliff, winning father of the year award? ML: Oh by far. Oh, it blows it out of the water. Winning father of the year award is probably my greatest honor rather than spending 30 days on a wall and finally getting to the summit, and that's thirty days vertical and sleeping from a port-a-ledge, a little cot that hangs from the wall. My fatherhood accomplishments blow everything else away. When I see my daughter, for example at Disneyland and she's seeing the real Ariel. The real Ariel mermaid, I'm just crying in joy. To see this or to say, "Daddy, daddy, I'm skiing all by myself" when she's skiing down the hill at three. It blows it out of the water. 041332 JK: Is she going to go climbing with you one day? ML: You know, maybe she will. I really don't care if she does or not. I'd like for her to be able to travel and see the world, I'd like for her to discover and learn appreciation for being a global citizen for seeing different cultures and just being a part of the global citizenship of this world. I'd really like that I hope she gets to travel a lot. But that's definitely my goal. Climbing, I don't really care if she climbs or not. If she wants to I'll support her, but I don't really have any goals for that. 041405 JK: It's hard to understand how you as a self-confessed addicted adventurer, (yeah) extreme adventurer, (sure) and a proud father of a little girl, can reconcile those two lives? ML: It's got a lot of challenges but the rewards are absolutely amazing. And you know, in the beginning when I was doing trips and she was born, she has a really great mom and family that would help take care of her when I went on the trips, but then when I'm home, I'm home 24/7 and I go to the house and I'm mister mom. I stay home. You know, in any life there's a lot of challenges and rewards and it's actually worked out pretty well. 041449 JK: You must run into people who say if you truly loved you're daughter, you wouldn't take these kinds of risks. ML: Its funny you say that, I've never heard that once. Never. They've asked how does your daughter affect the difficulty level of climbing, but you know one of the things is that pursuing this lifestyle and keeping these dreams alive that I've had, its been very difficult to do all of these trips and to keep a lifestyle going. It's everything I've had to keep it going. I have no trust fund. I mean it's a lot of work. I have to be really creative to fund it. To be physically and mentally trained and stay active. So I want my daughter to see that if you have a dream, if there's something you want to do, that maybe not everyone, maybe they don't agree with it, you can do it. You can follow it. You can go it. I want her to see that if you really want it in you're heart you can do whatever you want to do. In today's society and today's pressures, and who knows what its going to be like when she's 18 or 20. 041552 JK: What do you think when you look at the so safe, cautious lives which so many of us are leading these days? Afraid to go on vacations, considering a cruise ship a major adventure. ML: You know I try not to worry about other people too much. I try not to be too judgmental. Honestly I don't really think about it that often. You know a lot of the ways I think, sometimes are sort of criticized. You know, I believe that death and or old age is coming. We sort of have to live a sweet life. We can't be too stressed out and worried all the time. We have to think about our future, but we have to live in the now. We have to live in the moment and enjoy what we have. I mean tragedy is real, it can happen at any time as any of us know, but I'm really sold that death and or old age is coming and we have to live sweet. We have to do that. I mean it's almost the responsibility of a human to have this live to have to do that. 041654: And if your death comes on the side of a 4,000 foot cliff rather than crossing the street in Salt Lake City? ML: There you go. That's life. But you know, I don't believe in that. Climbing is 100 percent safe in my mind. There's some rock fall and some tragedies that can happen, but you know, most climbing accidents are human error. And you know, I'm very mathematical and the gear I have is really, really, really strong and tested. And I believe that if you are really focused and you know, climbing and adventure can be very safe. It's not a death wish like some people have thought about it. It's a life wish. 041739: So let's go through some of your trips and I don't know if you want to go through in a specific order. But let's be sure to talk about the ones that we have footage of. Talk to me about going to Antarctica, what are we seeing? ML: Antarctica is a real special place. And for me it was really a big dream come true. It seemed like it was going to be a real pinnacle expedition for me. All the stuff I've been doing, everything that I've learned sort of bringing it to that trip. Because it is really an area where there is no rescue possibility. You're on your own once you get out there. I had to go through some channels of having to go through the Russians and going through the Russian base and really working with them with a lot of red tape. There are a lot of things you have to do as a US citizen with the National Science Foundation, the Environment Protection Agency, the State Department. So there are a lot of variables out there before you even get to climb. And so Antarctica, the last two times I've been out there has been 24 hours of sunlight like one long day for two months. The sun stays up in the sky and goes around and around. You know it gets really cold. It gets down to negative 25, negative 30 out there. And when it's that cold it's hard to be climbing a big wall. Its one thing to survive, its another o go out there with your camera and video cameras and climb big walls and go skiing. It's just an amazing place. Its utter solitude. 041915: So how long were you there? How did you get around? Where did you go?ML: On one trip I was there for a little over 2 months with a really good friend of mine and definitely my best climbing partner. And we went out there and we did a bunch of skiing and kite skiing and did some work for NASA. We helped to fix a little unmanned weather station they are testing out there. But our goal was to climb because there are these huge vertical walls that are out there that look like big swords like big sort of flames that are frozen in time and huge 2, 3, 4,000 foot granite walls. 041952: So these aren't ice walls.ML: No they're granite walls. Rock walls that are as steep as could be. JK: And you went up these things? ML: Yeah, we went out, we did a bunch of climbing and we found one big one to focus on and we climbed it. JK: And how long did that take? ML: It took us about 16 days to get up it and down. So we spent about 2 weeks going up and living on the side of a wall. JK: Time must take on a different sensation when you're spending 16 days going up a rock face and its 24 hours of sun. ML: Oh it's magnificent. And it was just unbelievable, anytime you would look towards the sun, you know everything is frozen all the time and there is just sort of this breeze throwing ice crystals. And so anytime you would look towards the sun it was like there was some sort a wizard there, casting these magic crystals in the air. I mean it's just an example of some of the fantasy life things that happen when you're out on these expeditions, it's just amazing. 042052 JK: What do you eat when you're on a two month expedition? Hiking and climbing and so forth? ML: If it's cold, if it's artic or Antarctic, it's always cold, so you're always burning calories. So you bring a lot of butter, a lot of cheese, a lot of salami. A lot of things with a lot of calories. I think we brought a thousand energy bars and candy bars. I mean bags and bags of food. So you're just constantly eating. 042118 JK: Did you get dog sleds? ML: No we went to the Russian base from Capetown, South Africa and then from there they have these real small old planes that they take us out a couple hundred miles and dropped us off. And then they picked us up later. 042131 JK: So you had a base camp? ML: We had a base camp, yeah. We had to move it once to get to the walls, but we had a lot of time out there to ski and climb and to really explore the area. 042141 JK: Are you skiing, are you cross-country skiing? How are you getting across the flats? ML: It's kind of like cross-country skiing, yeah. JK: And you are using a parachute as well though? ML: Yeah, we have kite skis. It's basically a kite that pulls you along on skis. JK: That sounds fun ML: Oh its fantastic, yeah, it's great. JK: Is it hard? ML: It can be in really high winds. But in moderate winds if you know how to ski, you can pretty much get one and learn how to do it. I mean it's like downhill skiing almost, in a sense. You know, you're carving turns; you're carving, so if you have a flat surface, Antarctica is the best place to do it probably. 042216 JK: Did you get into trouble down there? ML: In what sense? JK: In terms of weather or sickness? ML: We had some pretty intense wind storms. But we never had any problems. We never got sick down there. I mean Antarctica is really great because it's clean, it's pristine. You know, you compare it to Kyrgistan or Madagascar where you get really sick and you almost expect it. So when you compare a lot of the areas for the trips there are a lot of ups and downs for all of them. Some place you have a tarantula in the crack, whereas in Antarctica, your feet and fingers are numb the entire time. So there are always pros and cons. 042253: Are you fighting frostbite all the time? ML: Not all the time. No. Because it's the Antarctic summer, it can stay pretty nice. Usually doesn't get above freezing, but in the sun it feels pretty nice. But when you have some cold spells and you're in the negative temperatures; when you're climbing, you're in a harness and you're hanging from a wall, you're circulation isn't as good. You're feet get pretty darn numb. I got a little bit of frost bite, actually both trips to Antarctica. 042320 JK: So take me from the bottom of the world to the top of the world to Greenland. That was a very different adventure. ML: Yeah, I mean. The Artic in the summer is a little bit warmer. Not as cold compared to the Antarctic summer. (PUSH TO ISO) Yeah there's a lot if Inuit as there's no local people in Antarctica. There's just nothing there besides just stations of the governments. But Greenland, there's these wonderful Greenlandic and Inuit people, I've made some really great friends there who I still stay in touch with. You know there are polar bears and seals and I've done a lot of hunting there where I've eaten a lot of seals and polar bear and whatnot with the locals who usually take me out by boat or however we have to get to the walls. 042410 (two shot0 JK: When you went on your major climb there, tell me what you had to do to get there. Tell me a bit about the climates and the difficulties that you've had to deal with. ML: Well I've done five trips to Greenland and a couple of them have been a little more intense than the others. A couple solo trips where I go completely alone. I'll go meet with some of the local Inuit and one particular trip I was taken by boat to this amazing sea ice. We ate a lot of seal and a polar bear on the way and I was just respecting their local ways of how they live and it's really nice to be taken and to be taken a part of a local culture like that. But when they drop me off, I'm alone, it's solo. On that particular trip it was about 250 miles from their village. From their small town. 042500: And you're further north? You're at the top of Greenland? ML: On this particular one I was east Greenland JK: What's your objective? ML: Well, this is eastern Greenland and I became really inspired by Greenland after my first trip there and so I contacted the Danish government and said hey, I'd love to get some maps of the east coast of Greenland. It's really remote, and it's very untouched and not a lot of information there. But a lot of beautiful contours of big steep granite walls. And you know, that part of the world is old glaciated, carved valleys. Just like Yosemite Valley, it's got El Capitan. And if you find some place that has the same history, you think, oh it's got to have huge granite walls there. So I got, 60 some odd maps from the Danish government and they were nice enough to send me some aerial photos of all the east coast of Greenland. All original prints. All were taken, you can tell, from some sort of military camera, some kind of government cameras with a just a lot of features on them, marking out where they are, etc... So a friend of a friend of mine put in a good word there and so I just started exploring east Greenland and two of trips I didn't even know what was there beforehand. No photos no nothing. I just knew on the maps. Hired the Inuit to take me out. And hundreds of miles by boat and these remote fjords. 042640 JK : Did you point to the photographs on the maps and say, "that ridge there, I want to see that one?" ML: No, I would show them on the map, here's the fjord I want to go to, but there not enough detail to actually pick out a wall or a peak. At least the fjord I would want to know where I would want to go. 042700 JK: And you figured that typography was going to give you something of what you wanted? ML: The typography looked really enticing for what I like. It looked like big steep walls that were carved by glaciers who knows how many millions of years ago. JK: And when you got there? ML: Stunning. World class, huge, giant walls. 042716: When you say giant, how high are we talking? ML: From the ocean, elevation actually from the water, actually 5 or 6,000 feet tall. Huge, huge. JK: And what did you scale? ML: And these are to the very summits so JK: So let me absorb that, we're talking a mile high of a flat shear wall? ML: Sure. Well, for example there is a little bit of scree and talus terrain that you have to walk up. One of the climbs I did it was about 4400 feet tall. So it worked out pretty nice. 042750 JK: How long does it take you to scale 4400 feet? ML: Well I was alone and that particular trip took about 20 days. So, you know. I have to shuttle a lot of gear up there and you know I had a few storm days, some pretty major storm days. It's kind of for me it's sort of the normal situations. 042814 JK: Take me to the moment in Greenland when you were scaling a rock face and you had to face a lot of adversity and you had a lot of rough weather and delirium. Talk me through that. ML: There was a trip there, this was 2002, and I had gotten halfway up the climb and I was on a real big natural ledge and there was a real big natural rock ledge and I could set up my tent there. And so its really steep and I get up to a nice ledge and I've got about halfway more to go, another 200 feet. And I got hit by this storm and the snow from the wall, the snow and the ice kept piling on the ledge, piling on the ledge. Just burying my tent, collapsing my tent and I couldn't sleep. And so for almost three days the storm was just hammering and hammering and hammering. And we're right on the Arctic and Greenland coast; right on the artic ocean here and the weather can slam storms on you. So I didn't sleep for almost 3 days and just every time I would try to go to sleep I was just in utter delirium. And I had these nightmares that seemed. You know you wake up in the morning and you have a dream and it seems so real and everyone's had one and its like that times ten and you're sort of half awake, half asleep and I had some interesting nightmares out there.