Fast Images Library
Thailand 10:00:01 - Footbridge over deep canyon, vs man walking across bridge, vs native village (thatched roofs), butterflies in field, long necked "giraffe women" of Burma, vs women weaving, walking in village, 10:06:54 - hill tribe women on porch, women wearing much jewelry, long necked woman, child and baby holding umbrella, close ups faces, kids walk though village, weaving on loom, 10:10:24 man has rings put on neck, women massaging shoulders, woman doing laundry, Cambodia, Phnom Penh, main street with traffic, vs. ext. national museum, vs. temple and spire, children playing, kids boat crossing Mekong River, vs. swimming races in river, palace with Cambodian flag, vs. Royal Palace, 10:15:10 Abandoned French style house with naked children playing up front, Buddhist temple spire in park with rickshaw cycle traffic in foreground, women and children walk in park, Wat Phnom, woman leaving offering at temple, vs. park, temple and traffic, Asian village on river, houses on stilts, vs. television antennas and visible pollution, vs. primitive gas station, gasoline in interesting containers (Coke, Fanta bottles) 10:20:13 - abandoned mansion with children playing, Victory Monument with rickshaw traffic, ext. Cambodiana Hotel, Buddhist monks pass through streets, vs. English language signs, group of boys on balcony, vs. dark alley, vs. Phnom Penh streets and traffic, vs. destroyed and deserted buildings, boats on Mekong, French colonial buildings with trash, man sitting on rickshaw in front of palace, 10:25:00 - vs. interior of Royal palace including Silver Pagoda, Tuol Sleng Museum of Genocide, ext. high school where 17,00 people were killed by Khmer Rouge, vs. handheld walks through torture center, vs. barbed wire, sign for museum, 10:30:56 vs. interior of torture chamber, implements, vs. close ups of photos of victims, man looking at photos, handheld walk through room, POV car on dirt road to killing fields, man driving car, Choeung Ek, Killing Fields, vs. tower of skulls, mass graves, Cambodians searching mass graves for teeth, 10:36:12 dental students display human teeth, vs. graves with human bones, searching the gravesite, vs. shelves and pagoda of skulls, Brahma bull walks through, skull pagoda, Angkor Wat, Cambodia, interior of airplane with passengers, man looks out window of plane, 10:40:27 vs. aerials of Ton Le Sap Lake, Angkor Wat at dawn, silhouette of boy wading into water, Buddhist monks walking out of Angkor Wat, crate of hand grenades, man hands machine gun to tourist, distant telephoto of Angkor Wat, street with few pedestrians, towers in sunrise blue light, 10:44:40 vs. wide shots of Angkor with sunrises, birds and trees, reflection of Angkor Wat in canal water, water buffalo herd cross river with jungle in background, ducks and birds in river, small boys cross river, 10:50:59 vs. silhouette of little boy in front of Angkor Wat road leading to tower, vs. Monks walking down path, vs. side views of Angkor Wat, interior courtyard of Angkor Wat, vs. ext. Angkor Wat. 10:55:39 - close up of tower and scaffolding, vs. Angkor Wat with sun in different positions, naked boys jump off bridge into river, close up of Bayon Stone, vs. small boy with gun climbs hill
HOUSE FLOOR / BOSNIA (1994)
SEVERAL HOUSE MEMBERS COMMENT ON BOSNIA DURING MORNING BUSINESS AND HOUSE ONE MINUTES.
VIETNAM TODAY / 10TH ANNIVERSARY OF THE FALL OF SAIGON
BARS AND TONE. SLATE. VS OF MEN PLAYING MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS. CS. VO. VS OF CHILDREN DANCING. VS OF CAMBODIAN REFUGEES RECEIVING FOOD. VS OF SHELVES PILED WITH THE SKULLS AND BONES OF THE VICTIMS OF THE CAMBODIAN GENOCIDE. MS OF NGET SOPHON, WHOSE FAMILY WAS SLAIN BY THE KHMER ROUGE. MS OF NGUON SOPHEE, WHOSE FATHER WAS KILLED. SHE ESCAPED TO A THAI BORDER CAMP. VS OF REFUGEES MOVING TO THAILAND. VS OF A REFUGEE CAMP. MS OF SOPHON, WHO HELPS RUN THE CAMP. VS OF KHMER ROUGE SOLDIERS. SU. VS OF PEOPLE WITH LEGS MISSING. VS OF THE DANCING CHILDREN. MS OF CHA PHIROM, WHOSE WIFE HAS JUST GIVEN BIRTH. MS OF A PREGNANT WIDOW WHO WANTS TO SEND HER BABY TO LIVE WITH HER AUNT IN THE UNITED STATES. VS OF A CHILD AND A SLEEPING MAN. CR: 177 REFEED. NO IMAGE. CI: MANKIND: REFUGEES, CAMBODIAN. MANKIND: HANDICAPPED. MANKIND: CHILDREN. MANKIND: SLEEPING. ATROCITIES: CAMBODIAN GENOCIDE. MUSIC: DANCING. PERSONALITIES: NGET SOPHON. PERSONALITIES: NGUON SOPHEE. PERSONALITIES: CHA PHIROM.
Duch the master of the forges of hell
Ina Productions
Documentary on the Khmer Rouge Duch
FR3 / France 3
NOTES: COL PRINT LOCATION: THAI / CAMBODIAN BORDER TITLE: CAMBODIAN REFUGEES SERVICED DATE: 03/14/00 NO: 18954 DATE SHOT: 03/13/00 LENGTH: 54 FEET SECONDS: 1M26 SOUND: NATSOF DATE OF ARRIVAL:
NOTES: COL PRINT LOCATION: THAI / CAMBODIAN BORDER TITLE: CAMBODIAN REFUGEES SERVICED DATE: 03/14/00 NO: 18954 DATE SHOT: 03/13/00 LENGTH: 54 FEET SECONDS: 1M26 SOUND: NATSOF DATE OF ARRIVAL: CAMBODIAN REFUGEES ORGANIZE THEIR LIFE IN A CAMP. FILM SHOWS: CAMP SCENES, PEOPLE COOKING, WASHING, LOOKING AFTER THEIR CHILDREN, A FEW PITIFUL BELONGINGS. STORYLINE: THERE ARE MORE THAN HALF-A-MILLION CAMBODIAN REFUGEES IN CAMPS - MANY OF THEMUNITED NATIONS -SPONSORED - CLUSTERED ON THE BORDER BETWEEN THAILAND AND THE KHMER STATE. MOST OF THE CAMPS HOUSE TENS OF THOUSANDS OF MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN WHO HAVE FLED EITHER FROM THE FIGHTING OR FROM PERSECUTION AND THE GENOCIDE THAT HAS BEEN THE MOST APPALLING FEATURE OF THE CAMBODIAN SCENE SINCE THE KHMERS ROUGES TOOK OVER IN 1975. MANY OF THE REFUGEES ARE NOW KHMERS ROUGES, IN FLIGHT BEFORE THE VIETNAMESE INVADERS. OTHER REFUGEES ARE FOLLOWERS OF PRINCE NORODOM SIHANOUK, OPPOSED TO BOTH THE KHMERS ROUGES AND THE VIETNAMESE-BACKED PHNOM PENH GOVERNMENT. UNITED NATIONS AUTHORITIES AND THE THAI GOVERNMENT HAVE SET UP CAMPS TO SEPARATE THE TWO GROUPS. MEANWHILE, AS BEST THEY CAN, THE REFUGEES ORGANIZE THEIR LIFE WHILE AWAITING EITHER A RETURN TO NORMAL CONDITIONS IN THEIR COUNTRY SO THAT THEY CAN GO BACK HOME, OR A VISA TO ANY COUNTRY WILLING TO OFFER THEM PERMANENT REFUGE. FEET R/SECS GV CAMP SCENES, PEOPLE COKKING AND WASHING, BABIES 19 30 WOMAN ROCKING BABY IN HAMMOCK 24 38 MS A FEW PACKETS PAN TO REFUGEES 30 48 CU GIRL WASHING 36 58 MS WOMAN COOKING 38 1M01 MS REFUGEES WITH CHILDREN IN FOREGROUND 43 1M09 MS GROUP OF REFUGEES (3 SHOTS) 54 1M26
Cambodia Duch 2 - WRAP Khmer Rouge prison chief to be moved to another facility; File ADDS transport
NAME: CAMB DUCH 2 20070731I TAPE: EF07/0911 IN_TIME: 10:48:44:05 DURATION: 00:02:44:01 SOURCES: Various DATELINE: Various/FILE RESTRICTIONS: SHOTLIST AP Television Phnom Penh, Cambodia - 31 July 2007 1. Car carrying Duch and convoy arriving at Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia AP Television Phnom Penh - 31 July 2007 2. Various of security Cambodian genocide tribunal headquarters in Phnom Penh 3. SOUNDBITE: (English) Reach Sombat, Genocide Tribunal Spokesman: "Kaing Khek Iev, known as Duch, was brought to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia on Tuesday morning for initial questioning by the co-investigating judges." 4. Cambodian flag flying over tribunal headquarters 5. SOUNDBITE: (English) Reach Sombat, Genocide Tribunal Spokesman: "He will be interviewed by the co-investigating judges and the co-investigating judges will issue a press statement on Wednesday." 6. Various exteriors of tribunal headquarters 7. Various of military court prison where Duch was held DC-Cam - AP Clients Only Location Unknown - Between 1975-1979 8. STILL photo of Kang Kek Iev, better known by his nickname "Duch", taken between 1975-1979, during the days of the Khmer Rouge government AP Television Samlot, Cambodia - March 1999 9. Various of Duch talking AP Television Bangkok, Thailand - 27 July 2007 10. SOUNDBITE: (English) Nic Dunlop, Author of "The Lost Executioner": "I think there's very little doubt that he's been responsible for a whole range of abuses from torture to executions to not only carrying out orders from above that were given to him but also to act on his own initiative, with his own authority." AP Television Phnom Penh, Cambodia - March 1999 11. Close of document from S-21, showing a list of prisoners on one day in 1978 - including several children 12. Duch's handwriting and signature on same document, which says "Smash them all!" AP Television Phnom Penh, Cambodia - March 1999 13. Various of S-21 (also known as "Tuol Sleng"), the secret holding centre in Phnom Penh where alleged enemies of the Khmer Rouge were first tortured then killed - It is now museum dedicated to preserving the memory of what happened under the Khmer Rouge STORYLINE A notorious Khmer Rouge prison chief was taken to the Cambodian genocide tribunal headquarters on Tuesday to be questioned by judges investigating crimes committed during the regime's rule in late 1970s, an official said. Kaing Khek Iev, also known as Duch, who headed the former Khmer Rouge prison S-21 in Phnom Penh - became the first suspect to be questioned by judges of the UN-backed tribunal, said a tribunal spokesman. "Kaing Khek Iev, known as Duch, was brought to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia on Tuesday morning for initial questioning by the co-investigating judges," Reach Sombat, a spokesman for the Genocide Tribunal told AP Television. "He will be interviewed by the co-investigating judges and the co-investigating judges will issue a press statement on Wednesday," Sombat said. The prison was a virtual slaughterhouse where suspected enemies of the ultra-communists were brutally tortured before being taken out to killing fields near the city. Officials said Duch was driven in a car escorted by Cambodian government security forces and arrived at the tribunal headquarters shortly after 6:10 a.m. (23:10 GMT). He was taken from a military prison, where he has been detained since 1999. Kaing Khek Iev, 62, is among five ex-Khmer Rouge leaders the tribunal's prosecutors have submitted to the co-investigating judges for further investigation. Some 16,000 people were imprisoned at S-21, now the Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum. Only about a dozen of them are thought to have survived when the Khmer Rouge regime was overthrown by a Vietnamese invasion in 1979. Nic Dunlop, author of the book "The Lost Executioner" about the Khmer Rouge, said that there is "very little doubt" that Duch was "responsible for a whole range of abuses from torture to executions to not only carrying out orders from above that were given to him but also to act on his own initiative, with his own authority." Some 1.7 (m) million people died from hunger, disease, overwork and execution as a result of the radical policies of the Khmer Rouge. On July 18, prosecutors submitted to the investigating judges the cases of five former Khmer Rouge leaders they recommend stand trial. The prosecutors did not reveal the identity of the five suspects, citing confidentiality rule.
Cambodia the school of women
A2 / France 2
Cambodia Campaign - Campaigning in former Khmer Rouge stronghold ahead of national elections
TAPE: EF03/0662 IN_TIME: 08:28:37 DURATION: 3:52 SOURCES: APTN RESTRICTIONS: DATELINE: Pailin, July 16-17 & Recent SHOTLIST: July 16, 2003 1. Various of Sam Rainsy motorcade during campaign for July 27 nationwide elections 2. Sam Rainsy applauding and waving from truck as motorcade drives past 3. Campaign truck driving past 4. Various of Sam Rainsy walking and shaking hands with supporters 5. Crowd at rally applauding 6. Sam Rainsy addressing crowd 7. Children applauding 8. Wide shot of Sam Rainsy campaigners 9. Mid-shot of campaigners wearing T-shirts with picture of candle 10. SOUNDBITE: (Khmer) Ven Dara, Sam Rainsy Party Candidate: "I have no problem competing against Y Chhean. My party is clean and not corrupt, unlike Y Chhean's." July 3, 2003 11. Khieu Samphan, former Khmer Rouge head of state, being escorted to funeral for Khieu Ponnary, former wife of Pol Pot 12. Wide shot of funeral rites 13. Nuon Chea, former Khmer Rouge parliament head, seated at funeral 14. Ieng Sary, former Khmer Rouge Foreign Minister, praying at funeral 15. Various of portrait of Khieu Ponnary at funeral July 17, 2003 17. Policeman jumping on motorcycle 18. Motorcycle driving off ahead of Cambodian People's Party convoy 19. Convoy passing 20. SOUNDBITE: (Khmer) Y Chhean, Cambodian People's Party Candidate: "Tribunal is a matter of law. Actually, I think there is no problem (holding it). Most people here understand who the policy makers were during the Khmer Rouge era. Those key figures like Pol Pot, Son Sen and Ta Mok are either dead or jailed. So, it would be no problem to hold a tribunal." 21. Polling station illustration 22. Polling station officials with paperwork 23. SOUNDBITE: (English) Ieng Sophy, Chief Election commission: "Well first of all I would say that we have many observers here right now, international observers who came here just for to observe the election day. So, this is a good part for us to be sure that we do have a free and fair election." 24. Gems being poured onto scale in gem market 25. Man weighing gems 26. Wide shot of gem market 27. Man examining a gem 28. Close-up of gem being examined in man's hand STORYLINE: Campaigning for national elections has evoked Cambodia's grim past in jungle town of Pailin, once a stronghold of the genocidal Khmer Rouge (KR) regime, where two former guerrillas are locked in a battle over ballots. Former Khmer Rouge cadres Ven Dara and Y Chhean are front-runners in a race for a single seat in parliament to represent Pailin, a town of 40-thousand people with 22,394 eligible voters. The Sam Rainsy Party (SRP) and the ruling Cambodian People's Party (CPP) are locked in a tough contest for the lone seat in the province, home of many of the former Khmer Rouge. What divides the candidates is the issue of the proposed United Nations-assisted genocide tribunal for surviving Khmer Rouge leaders. Sam Rainsy and his party's candidate, Ven Dara, would like to see many here go on trial in a joint Cambodian-United Nations atrocities tribunal. Ven Dara's uncle, Ta Mok, was a former KR military commander and was arrested in 1999 - becoming one of only two Khmer Rouge officers in prison waiting to be brought before the proposed tribunal. Ven believes that if her uncle faces the tribunal, then all former surviving KR leaders should also stand trial. However, the CPP, led by Prime Minister Hun Sen, and its candidate Y Chhean - a former Pol Pot bodyguard - want a limited number tried. This issue has made the political race in the western enclave interesting. The SRP currently holds the legislative seat in the area after victory in the 1998 election. However, former Pol Pot bodyguard Y Chhean - recruited by the CPP - is the standing provincial governor. Sam Rainsy campaigned in Pailin recently and received a huge turnout, but his supporters still believe the machine of CPP and Y Chhean will steal the election. At the centre of the political debate are three former Khmer Rouge leaders - seen recently attending a funeral for Pol Pot's first wife Khieu Ponnary. All could face trial for the misdeeds of the regime that is estimated to have caused the death of 1.7 (m) million Cambodians from starvation, disease, overwork and execution during its 1975-79 rule. None of the group's leaders has faced justice for the atrocities. Khieu Samphan was the nominal head of state and author of much of the ultra-communist philosophy of the Khmer Rouge. Nuon Chea was head of the legislature, and Ieng Sary was the foreign minister. All three made a deal for clemency with the current government after agreeing to have their supporters lay down their arms not long after the 1998 election. Hun Sen was a Khmer Rouge cadre himself before defecting and gaining political power after the 1979 invasion by Vietnam ended the rule of the Pol Pot regime. The pact to create a tribunal, signed by Cambodia and the United Nations last month, still has to be ratified by the Cambodian assembly. International and Cambodian judges will determine who will go before the court. Pailin is known as the centre of the Cambodian gem industry, and its riches could benefit the winning political parties both in terms of personal wealth as well as financing political ambitions. Its 22-thousand plus voters will go to the polls on Sunday. Voters throughout Cambodia will elect a 123-seat National Assembly, from which a new government will be formed.
All Saints of the Cambodian Khmers
FR3 / France 3
Cambodia Khmer - Khmer Rouge leaders avoid war crimes spotlight
TAPE: EF02/0399 IN_TIME: 07:30:51 DURATION: 5:09 SOURCES: APTN RESTRICTIONS: DATELINE: Various - See Script SHOTLIST: NB: no slate at the start of story File - 1996/1997 Tonle Bati 1.Various of bones of Cambodians who were killed during the regime of Khmer Rouge File - 2000 Choung Ek, near Phnom Penh 2. Tower of bones File - April 1998 Anlong Deng 3. Shot of Ta mok File - April 1998 Anlong Deng 4. Various of Pol Pot's funeral Pailin - 3 May 2002 5. SOUNDBITE: (English) Khieu Samphan, public face of Khmer Rouge regime "I would like to spend the rest of my life in the calm. Because my life has been so disturbing with the same questions again and again. But I have nothing against the press men." File 2002 Phnom Penh 6. Cambodian map pieced by human bones at the Tuol Sleng museum 7. Various of museum staffers removing bones Battembong - 4 May 2002 8. SOUNDBITE: (Khmer) leng Sary, Khmer Rouge former leader "The newspapers write a different story from what really happened." File Phnom Penh 9. King Sihanouk being surrounded by Cambodian people 10. King Sihanouk shaking hands with people Battembong - May 4, 2002 11. SOUNDBITE: (Khmer) leng Sary, Former Khmer Rouge leader "Even the king, he does not keep an an accurate account. When he wrote his book in 1979 it was false, very false." File - 1998 Phnom Penh 12. US embassy in Cambodia 13. US flag Battembong - 4 May 2002 14. SOUNDBITE: (English) leng Thanith, Ieng Sary's wife "Because it's not just Cambodia alone, but it's the highest powers that have run Cambodia. Now you understand it's very difficult to separate wrong from right, but even if we speak they don't believe us." File - December, 1998 Undisclosed location 15. Various of Khmer Rouge leaders Khieo Samphan and Nuon Chea meeting Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen Pailin - 2 May 2002 16. SOUNDBITE: (Khmer) Nuon Chea, Pol Pot's second in command (OVER STILL PHOTO) "I am not concerned about politics or other things dealing with my country, I just want to exist like normal people. I am old. I am not healthy and I have no ability, I am living here today just to give advice to my children or to do something good and legal for my fellow Cambodians." 17. Various of Cambodians making jade rings in the market in Pailin, northern Cambodia Sampov Long - 4 May 2002 18. SOUNDBITE: (Khmer) Endkong, 54 year old farmer "During the Khmer Rouge the regime killed a lot of people. No medicine, no food to eat and we were forced to work hard. Now the family is very developed. We have everything to eat, a house in which to stay and we have the right to go anywhere." Pailin - 2 May 2002 19. Various of streets Sampov Long - 3 May 2002 20. SOUNDBITE: (Khmer) Neat Pen, 63 years old farmer "I am not happy with the Khmer Rouge leaders because the regime killed lots of people. Even my father and brother were killed during that time, So I am very angry and I want to put them in the jail or kill them." Phnom Penh - 4 May 2002 21. Various of children playing at a park in Phnom Penh 22. SOUNDBITE: (Khmer) Voxpop, Young Cambodian woman "I heard from my father the story of Pol Pot and the Pol Pot time. But I don't really know who they are because I was born after the Pol Pot regime." 23. Shot of children playing at the park STORYLINE: Several former Khmer Rouge leaders in Cambodia are quietly hoping that possible war crime tribunals will never come to pass, as they fade into their old age. While Kaing Kek Ieu, whose "revolutionary" name was Duch, says from jail that he is ready to defend himself, the rest of the surviving leadership are keeping a low profile, hoping that the nation and the international community will lose interest in them. Another former KR leader, Ta Mok, also remains jailed, although uncommunicative. Pol Pot, considered the head man during the Khmer Rouge time, died several years ago. But leng Sary, Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea, all considered top decision-makers during the murderous regime, remain at large - living quietly in the western town of Pailin. War crimes activists and local and international journalists have tried to keep the spotlight on these men, an endeavour they resent and wish to stop. The current government led by Hun Sen, himself a former Khmer Rouge comrade, seems to be taking small steps to encourage the public to put the past behind them. As part of this process, the Tuol Sleng museum, set up by the liberating Vietnamese to commemorate the torture of Cambodians by the Khmer Rouge, has been scaled down in recent months. And while laws have been drafted to provide rules for a tribunal, a dispute with the United Nations (UN) threatens to neuter or even avoid any trials. Last August King Sihanouk signed a law enabling the establishment of a UN-assisted genocide tribunal. But some suspect that even the king hopes the whole plan can be cancelled, embarrassed over what some say was his capitulation with the Khmer Rouge when they were in power, despite his protests to the contrary. Ieng Thanith, Ieng Sary's wife and herself a player during the Khmer Rouge time, says that other world powers would be embarrassed by a tribunal. The US sided with the Khmer Rouge after the Vietnamese invasion that installed Hun Sen and eventually led to UN-sponsored free elections. Ieng Sary received an amnesty after making a deal with the government in the mid-'90's. It's unclear whether that agreement could be breached to include him in the tribunal. Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea appear more vulnerable, despite their efforts to come in from the cold in 1998. Now they both claim to be tired old men who just want to be left alone with their families. But their expression of desire to fade away in peace, designed to gain sympathy from the international community, will not wash with Cambodians at home - especially among those born before 1975 who remember the KR regime. Those who survived want justice. However, with more than half the population under 30 years of age, the regime's brutality is starting to fade from the collective memory. In 2002, the question is whether the victims will be able to push a trial into place before the former KR leaders disappear from the landscape permanently. More than two (m) million Cambodians are thought to have been executed, or died from disease or starvation during the Khmer Rouge reign. Many were tortured, having been accused of befriending the Western non-communists within the country or the Vietnamese. Others fell victim to the Khmer Rouge's disastrous rural relocation scheme in which cities were emptied in order to set up an agrarian society - which later failed to meet the nations food needs.
[Meeting with Chum Mey, survivor of camp S21]
FR3 / France 3
Cambodia Leaders - Infamous former Khmer Rouge leaders living quiet lives
TAPE: EF02/0439 IN_TIME: 07:27:36 DURATION: 3:52 SOURCES: APTN RESTRICTIONS: DATELINE: Various - see script SHOTLIST: Pailin, northern Cambodia May 2, 2002 1. Wide shot of Pailin 2. Various of Cambodian people on the street 3. Sneaking shot of Nuon Chea and his wife in his house at Pailin town of Cambodia 4. Wide shot of a sign outside Nuon Chea's house warning people to stay away 5. SOUNDBITE: (Khmer) Nuon Chea, Pol Pot's second in command during Khmer Rouge regime "I like to have a simple life, but I am not very happy. I am still thinking about my country and it's future. But I am not talking about who will be in the leadership. I do not care. I am just worried about my children." 6. Thai-Cambodian border shot 7. Cambodian border guard 8. Cambodian border station May 3, 2002 Pailin, northern Cambodia. 9. SOUNDBITE: (English) Khieu Samphan, Khmer Rouge nominal leader "To speak about my relationship with Nuon Chea. It's not strictly professional. I have to respect him and help him in times of difficulty. You know it's my nature." 10. Khieu Samphan talking to AP reporter 11. Tilt up from Khieu Samphan's bare feet to his face 12. SOUNDBITE: (Khmer) Khieu Samphan, Khmer Rouge nominal leader "I tell you the truth. I am not very happy or sad. It's simple. In the past I did something so that my name is in the story of my country." May 2, 2002 Pailin, northern Cambodia 13. People on street 14. Monks May 4, 2002 Battembong, northern Cambodia 15. SOUNDBITE: (Khmer), Ieng Sary (seated with wife) Question: "Did you visit Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan? Answer: No." (Waves his hands) FILE Phnom Penh 16. Wide shot of Palace May 4, 2002 Battembong, northern Cambodia 17. SOUNDBITE : (English) Ieng Thanith, Ieng Sary's wife Question: "(Is it true that) Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea have no money? Answer: (laughs) I don't know. They live very far away." 18. Wide shot of Ieng Sary and his wife at Battembong airport. 19. SOUNDBITE: (English) Ieng Thanith, Ieng Sary's wife QUESTION: Why did you go to Thailand?? LENG THANITH: Because we have all of our friends there." May 4, 2002 Sampov Long, northern Cambodia. 20. Pan of cornfield 21. Corn farmers 22. Shot of a van full of passengers on the street. STORYLINE: As the momentum wanes for holding a United Nations-sponsored Khmer Rouge genocide trial, two of the barbaric regime's most prominent leaders live a life of freedom but boredom, playing with grandchildren and listening to the radio. In rare interviews, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan have told The Associated Press that they expect to spend their final years in Pailin, a nondescript town close to the Thai border. Nuon Chea, 76, is the top surviving Khmer Rouge commander. He helped Pol Pot seize control of Cambodia's communist movement in the 1950s and '60s and then became the movement's chief political ideologue. Khieu Samphan, 70, was the nominal leader of the Khmer Rouge and its best known public face. The two men now describe themselves as poor and isolated. They agreed to the interviews on the condition that they wouldn't be asked about the past or their roles in the 1975-79 Khmer Rouge regime led by Pol Pot. The Khmer Rouge are blamed for the deaths of at least 1.7 million Cambodians, killed by disease or overwork, starved or executed in their attempt to create an agrarian utopia. The 45-minute interviews took place separately on consecutive days this month at their isolated and modest concrete and wooden homes, located less than 30 metres (yards) apart. A long-standing plan to create a U.N.-assisted Cambodian tribunal to bring surviving Khmer Rouge leaders to justice appears to have unraveled. The world body pulled out of the project in February, saying it cannot rely on the Cambodian government to create a tribunal of international standards. It wants changes to laws governing the tribunal but Cambodia has refused, citing its sovereignty. Many critics say the government is deliberately thwarting the tribunal because many members of Prime Minister Hun Sen's government were Khmer Rouge cadres. Hun Sen himself was a member until he deserted in 1977 and returned later with the invading Vietnamese army that ousted the Khmer Rouge. No Khmer Rouge member has ever been convicted for the 1970s atrocities. Only two top officials, Ta Mok and Kaing Khek Iev, are in jail after being seized by government forces in the waning days of the Khmer Rouge guerrilla war. The two, along with Nuon Chea, Khieu Samphan and former Foreign Minister Ieng Sary, would likely be among the chief defendants in any future tribunal.
Cambodia. Testimonies of rescapes of the Khmer Rouge
TF1 News (Private - August 1982 ->)
[Cambodia: Khmer Rouge trial]
TF1 News (Private - August 1982 ->)
Cambodia Duch 2 - Khmer Rouge executioner returns to 'killing fields' ;tribunal spokesman
NAME: CAM DUCH 2 20080226Ixx TAPE: EF08/0229 IN_TIME: 10:00:09:00 DURATION: 00:02:28:20 SOURCES: AP TELEVISION DATELINE: nr Phnom Penh, 26 Feb 2008/File RESTRICTIONS: See Script SHOTLIST: AP Television near Phnom Penh, Cambodia - 26 February 2008 1. Convoy carrying Kaing Guek Eav (a.k.a. Duch) leaving the tribunal's detention centre AP Television Choeung Ek, south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia - 26 February 2008 2. Wide of Choeung Ek, also known as the "killing fields" 3. Mid of entrance gate 4. Police vehicles parked outside 5. Various of security 6. Various of convoy arriving 7. Various of security outside Documentation Centre of Cambodia FILE: Location Unknown - between 1975 and1979 8. STILL photo of Duch during the days of the Khmer Rouge government AP Television FILE: Phnom Penh, Cambodia - March 1999 9. Wide pan of S-21 prison that Duch was responsible for (a.k.a. Tuol Sleng) 10. Barbed wires at S-21 11. Pan of photos of Khmer Rouge victims hanging on the wall of S-21 wall FILE: Phnom Penh, Cambodia - December 2007 12. Wide of Duch standing in court 13. Close-up of Duch in court FILE: Choeung Ek, Cambodia - 1999 14. Wide of Khmer Rouge mass graves site 15. Close-up of piece of clothing on the ground 16. Pan down of skulls of victims held in stupa AP Television Cheoung Ek, near Phnom Penh, Cambodia - 26 February 2008 17. Pan down of skulls of victims held in stupa 18. Various of skulls 19. Tilt down from tree to sign at base of tree trunk, reading "Killing tree against which executioners beat children" 20. Wide of Cambodians standing beside exhumed mass graves 21. Wide of journalists standing around tribunal spokesman Reach Sambath at the killing fields 22. SOUNDBITE: (English) Reach Sambath, Tribunal spokesman: "We could see that when he saw the tree trunk, which he said the children were smashed into the tree trunk, at the end of the conversation he bent his leg and he worshipped, he prayed, he saluted to the tree, and he feel very emotion(al) and then at the very end of the conversation he came here, he asked permission to pray to those victims who had died as well and we could see that his eye was very emotional." 23. Wide of convoy carrying Duch, leaving the killing fields to return him to detention STORYLINE: The former head of a notorious Khmer Rouge torture centre was moved to tears on Tuesday when he was taken by Cambodia's genocide tribunal to one of the country's notorious "killing fields" to which he is accused of sending thousands of people to their deaths, an official said. Kaing Guek Eav, also known as Duch, has been charged with crimes against humanity for his role three decades ago as commandant of the Khmer Rouge's notorious S-21 prison. He was taken into custody by the UN-assisted tribunal last year pending trial. An estimated 1.7 (m) million people died during the 1975-79 communist Khmer Rouge regime, which cut off contact with the outside world and forced the entire population into agricultural collectives, leading to starvation and disease. The regime tortured and executed untold thousands of people. Duch, 65, is one of five former high-ranking Khmer Rouge officials being held for trial by the joint UN-Cambodian tribunal established in 2006 to finally bring aging top Khmer Rouge leaders to justice. Tuesday's so-called re-enactment, closed to the public and media, was part of an investigative process that involves taking the accused to the crime scene to be questioned about what happened in the past. Duch was especially moved when he stood before a tree with a sign describing how executioners disposed of their child victims by bashing their heads against its trunk, the spokesman said. "We could see that when he saw the tree trunk, which he said the children were smashed into the tree trunk, at the end of the conversation he bent his leg and he worshipped, he prayed, he saluted to the tree," said Reach Sambath, a tribunal spokesman. There are several similar displays among the shallow graves that contain skeletal remains and ragged clothes. Some 16-thousand men, women and children who had been held at S-21 were killed and buried at Choeung Ek, now a memorial site that is a popular tourist attraction. At the end of the tour, Duch clasped his hands together in prayer and cried again in front of a glass-fronted stupa, or Buddhist reliquary, crammed with 8,985 skulls, some bearing clear evidence of death by hammers, hoes, bamboo sticks and bullets, Sambath said. Duch had been driven in a heavily guarded convoy from the tribunal's detention centre to Choeung Ek, about 10 kilometres (6 miles) south of Phnom Penh. About 80 people, including judges, prosecutors, lawyers, representatives of the victims and witnesses, were on hand for the re-enactment, Reach Sambath said. Among the witnesses were four former staff members of S-21, he said. Duch is scheduled to visit S-21, now the Tuol Sleng genocide museum, on Wednesday. Of the thousands jailed there during the Khmer Rouge reign of terror, only 14 are believed to have survived. The long-delayed genocide trials may start later this year. Many fear the group's surviving leaders could die before being brought to justice. The movement's chief, Pol Pot, died in 1998. One of Duch's fellow defendants, former Khmer Rouge Foreign Minister Ieng Sary, was hospitalised last week with persistent urinary tract problems, Reach Sambath said on Monday.
Cambodia Duch 2 - Khmer Rouge executioner returns to 'killing fields' ;tribunal spokesman
NAME: CAM DUCH 2 20080226Ixx TAPE: EF08/0229 IN_TIME: 10:00:09:00 DURATION: 00:02:28:20 SOURCES: AP TELEVISION DATELINE: nr Phnom Penh, 26 Feb 2008/File RESTRICTIONS: See Script SHOTLIST: AP Television near Phnom Penh, Cambodia - 26 February 2008 1. Convoy carrying Kaing Guek Eav (a.k.a. Duch) leaving the tribunal's detention centre AP Television Choeung Ek, south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia - 26 February 2008 2. Wide of Choeung Ek, also known as the "killing fields" 3. Mid of entrance gate 4. Police vehicles parked outside 5. Various of security 6. Various of convoy arriving 7. Various of security outside Documentation Centre of Cambodia FILE: Location Unknown - between 1975 and1979 8. STILL photo of Duch during the days of the Khmer Rouge government AP Television FILE: Phnom Penh, Cambodia - March 1999 9. Wide pan of S-21 prison that Duch was responsible for (a.k.a. Tuol Sleng) 10. Barbed wires at S-21 11. Pan of photos of Khmer Rouge victims hanging on the wall of S-21 wall FILE: Phnom Penh, Cambodia - December 2007 12. Wide of Duch standing in court 13. Close-up of Duch in court FILE: Choeung Ek, Cambodia - 1999 14. Wide of Khmer Rouge mass graves site 15. Close-up of piece of clothing on the ground 16. Pan down of skulls of victims held in stupa AP Television Cheoung Ek, near Phnom Penh, Cambodia - 26 February 2008 17. Pan down of skulls of victims held in stupa 18. Various of skulls 19. Tilt down from tree to sign at base of tree trunk, reading "Killing tree against which executioners beat children" 20. Wide of Cambodians standing beside exhumed mass graves 21. Wide of journalists standing around tribunal spokesman Reach Sambath at the killing fields 22. SOUNDBITE: (English) Reach Sambath, Tribunal spokesman: "We could see that when he saw the tree trunk, which he said the children were smashed into the tree trunk, at the end of the conversation he bent his leg and he worshipped, he prayed, he saluted to the tree, and he feel very emotion(al) and then at the very end of the conversation he came here, he asked permission to pray to those victims who had died as well and we could see that his eye was very emotional." 23. Wide of convoy carrying Duch, leaving the killing fields to return him to detention STORYLINE: The former head of a notorious Khmer Rouge torture centre was moved to tears on Tuesday when he was taken by Cambodia's genocide tribunal to one of the country's notorious "killing fields" to which he is accused of sending thousands of people to their deaths, an official said. Kaing Guek Eav, also known as Duch, has been charged with crimes against humanity for his role three decades ago as commandant of the Khmer Rouge's notorious S-21 prison. He was taken into custody by the UN-assisted tribunal last year pending trial. An estimated 1.7 (m) million people died during the 1975-79 communist Khmer Rouge regime, which cut off contact with the outside world and forced the entire population into agricultural collectives, leading to starvation and disease. The regime tortured and executed untold thousands of people. Duch, 65, is one of five former high-ranking Khmer Rouge officials being held for trial by the joint UN-Cambodian tribunal established in 2006 to finally bring aging top Khmer Rouge leaders to justice. Tuesday's so-called re-enactment, closed to the public and media, was part of an investigative process that involves taking the accused to the crime scene to be questioned about what happened in the past. Duch was especially moved when he stood before a tree with a sign describing how executioners disposed of their child victims by bashing their heads against its trunk, the spokesman said. "We could see that when he saw the tree trunk, which he said the children were smashed into the tree trunk, at the end of the conversation he bent his leg and he worshipped, he prayed, he saluted to the tree," said Reach Sambath, a tribunal spokesman. There are several similar displays among the shallow graves that contain skeletal remains and ragged clothes. Some 16-thousand men, women and children who had been held at S-21 were killed and buried at Choeung Ek, now a memorial site that is a popular tourist attraction. At the end of the tour, Duch clasped his hands together in prayer and cried again in front of a glass-fronted stupa, or Buddhist reliquary, crammed with 8,985 skulls, some bearing clear evidence of death by hammers, hoes, bamboo sticks and bullets, Sambath said. Duch had been driven in a heavily guarded convoy from the tribunal's detention centre to Choeung Ek, about 10 kilometres (6 miles) south of Phnom Penh. About 80 people, including judges, prosecutors, lawyers, representatives of the victims and witnesses, were on hand for the re-enactment, Reach Sambath said. Among the witnesses were four former staff members of S-21, he said. Duch is scheduled to visit S-21, now the Tuol Sleng genocide museum, on Wednesday. Of the thousands jailed there during the Khmer Rouge reign of terror, only 14 are believed to have survived. The long-delayed genocide trials may start later this year. Many fear the group's surviving leaders could die before being brought to justice. The movement's chief, Pol Pot, died in 1998. One of Duch's fellow defendants, former Khmer Rouge Foreign Minister Ieng Sary, was hospitalised last week with persistent urinary tract problems, Reach Sambath said on Monday.
The artists of the burned theatre
Ina Productions
++OBIT Sihanouk
AP-APTN-2330: ++OBIT Sihanouk Sunday, 14 October 2012 STORY:++OBIT Sihanouk- 4:3 Former Cambodian King Norodom Sihanouk dies aged 89 LENGTH: 04:09 FIRST RUN: 2330 RESTRICTIONS: Part No Access Cambodia TYPE: Natsound/Comm/Part mute SOURCE: VARIOUS STORY NUMBER: 862820 DATELINE: Various - File LENGTH: 04:09 SHOTLIST: TVK - NO ACCESS CAMBODIA FILE: Date unknown 1. Titles on black-and-white film, reading: "9th November 1953 Cambodia regains Independence" (translated from French) TVK - NO ACCESS CAMBODIA FILE: Phnom Penh, Cambodia - 9 November 1953 ++BLACK AND WHITE PICTURES++ 2. Cambodian soldiers march past Royal Palace in Phnom Penh in the rain as VIPs salute 3. Norodom Sihanouk (left) salutes, alongside French official 4. Mid of soldiers marching 5. Mid of soldiers marching 6. Mid of Norodom Sihanouk shaking hands with French official at Independence Day ceremony 7. Wide of Royal Palace, Phnom Penh ROYAL PALACE HANDOUT - AP CLIENTS ONLY FILE: Phnom Penh, Cambodia - Date unknown 8. Various of Norodom Sihanouk playing a role in one of the many feature films he produced and directed AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY FILE: Phnom Penh, Cambodia - November 1967 9. Various of Jacqui Kennedy feeding an elephant alongside Norodom Sihanouk ++MUTE++ AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY FILE: Phnom Penh, Cambodia - Date Unknown 10. Tracking shot of Norodom Sihanouk cutting ribbon and being mobbed by crowd AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY FILE: Date and location unknown 11. Various of Marshall Lon Nol with Cambodian troops - Nol overthrew Sihanouk in March 1970, tipping the country into civil war and full-scale entanglement in the Vietnam conflict AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY FILE: Phnom Penh, Cambodia - 1970, exact date unknown 12. Various of hotel staff removing portrait of Sihanouk from wall, following the coup in 1970 ++MUTE++ AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY FILE: Near Phnom Penh, Cambodia - 1975, exact date unknown 13. Various of Cambodian government troops battling communist Khmer Rouge forces; some wounded are carried away KHMER ROUGE FILM - AP CLIENTS ONLY FILE: Exact location and date unknown, approximately 1970 14. Various of Sihanouk getting out of car in jungle clearing and embracing Khieu Samphan, one of the leaders of the Khmer Rouge who were fighting Lon Nol's troops 15. Wide of Sihanouk lining up for photo-call with other Khmer Rouge leaders, including Pol Pot (extreme left of shot) ++MUTE++ 16. Tracking shot of Sihanouk greeting people in jungle after joining up with Khmer Rouge rebels 17. Various of Khmer Rouge troops in jungle 18. Tracking shot of Sihanouk walking down line of applauding people in jungle AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY FILE: Near Kampong Thom, Cambodia - 1979, exact date unknown 19. Various of human remains in field, following the ousting of the Khmer Rouge regime by Vietnamese forces. An estimated 1.7 million Cambodians died under the Khmer Rouge, perhaps as many as 300,000 through execution UNTV - AP CLIENTS ONLY FILE: New York, USA - 1975, exact date unknown 20. Various of Sihanouk at United Nations after the Khmer Rouge victory AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY Beijing, China - Date Unknown 21. Tracking shot of Chinese troops running near Sihanouk's Beijing residence AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY Beijing, China - Date Unknown 22. Sihanouk's house in Beijing AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY Beijing, China - Date Unknown 23. Mid of Sihanouk looking at monument in Tiananmen Square with officials AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY Phnom Penh, Cambodia - 1995 24. Wide of Sihanouk emerging from plane and greeting crowds at Phnom Penh airport in 1995, after returning from Beijing following treatment for cancer 25. Cutaway of media 26. Close-up of Sihanouk waving; shot pulls back to show officials on their knees in front of him AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY December 2001 - Phnom Penh, Cambodia 27. Mid of Sihanouk at funeral ceremony for Son Sann, a former partner in a resistance coalition of guerrillas that fought the Vietnamese occupiers in the 1980s 28. Mid of mourners at funeral 29. Wide of a frail-looking Sihanouk performing funeral rites for Son Sann 30. Wide of fireworks going off TVK - NO ACCESS CAMBODIA Phnom Penh, Cambodia - October 2004 31. Various of Sihanouk and his wife Monineath at the coronation ceremony for son, Norodom Sihamoni, following his own abdication STORYLINE: Norodom Sihanouk, the former Cambodian king who remained an influential figure in his country's politics through a half-century of war, genocide and upheaval, died on Monday morning. He was 89. Cambodian government spokesman Khieu Kanharith said Sihanouk died of natural causes in Beijing, where he had travelled for medical treatment earlier this year. Prince Sisowath Thomico, a royal family member who was also Sihanouk's assistant, said the former king had suffered a heart attack at a hospital. Sihanouk was a key figure in Cambodian politics for six decades but abdicated in 2004, citing poor health, and was succeeded by a son, Norodom Sihamoni. Sihanhouk had been in China since January, and had suffered a variety of illnesses, including colon cancer, diabetes and hypertension. Kanharith said arrangements were being made to repatriate his body for an official funeral in Cambodia. In January, Sihanouk requested that he be cremated after he dies in the Cambodian and Buddhist tradition, asking that his ashes be put in an urn, preferably made of gold, and placed in a stupa at the country's Royal Palace. Sihanouk saw Cambodia reel from colony to kingdom, US-backed regime to Khmer Rouge killing field and foreign-occupied land to guerrilla war zone and finally to a fragile experiment with democracy. He was a feudal-style monarch beloved by his people. But he was seldom able to deliver the stability they craved through decades of violence. Born October 31, 1922, Sihanouk enjoyed a pampered childhood in French colonial Indochina. In 1941, the French crowned 19-year-old Sihanouk rather than relatives closer in line to the throne, thinking the pudgy, giggling prince would be easy to control. They were the first of many to underestimate him, and by 1953 the French were out. Two years later, Sihanouk stepped down from the throne, organised a mass political party and steered Cambodia toward uneasy neutrality at the height of the Cold War. Sihanouk accepted limited US aid and nurtured relations with Communist China. He was also a founder of the Non-Aligned Movement. Sihanouk was a ruthless politician, talented dilettante and tireless playboy, caught up in endless, almost childlike enthusiasms. He made movies, painted, composed music, fielded a palace soccer team and led his own jazz band. His large appetite extended to fast cars, food and women. He married at least five times - some say six - and fathered 14 children. After 1960, Sihanouk drifted toward the communist camp, seeking assurances from his powerful neighbours, China and Vietnam, that his country's neutrality would be respected. In 1965, Sihanouk broke off relations with Washington as US involvement in the Vietnam War shifted into high gear. But by 1969, worried about increasing Vietnamese communist use of Cambodian soil, he made new overtures to the United States and turned against China. Sihanouk's top priority was to keep Cambodia out of the war, but he could not. US aircraft bombed Vietnamese communist sanctuaries in Cambodia with increasing regularity, and his protests were ignored. Internally, Cambodia was a one-man show. Sihanouk's sharpest critics accused him of running a medieval state as an ancient Khmer ruler reincarnated in Western dress. "I am Sihanouk," he once said, "and all Cambodians are my children." Nonetheless, the country was at relative peace and some attempts were made to better the life of the peasants, who adored Sihanouk as a near-deity. Outsiders saw a country of shimmering temples and emerald green rice fields that seemed a chapter from an Oriental fairy tale. But that face of Cambodia would soon vanish. In 1970, a US-backed coup sent the prince to Beijing for years of lonely, if lavish, exile. Within weeks, war broke out, beginning a systematic destruction of Cambodia that killed millions and impoverished the survivors. Sihanouk, seeking to regain the throne, joined the Khmer Rouge-dominated rebels after his overthrow. They had numbered only a few hundred until then, but his presence gave them a legitimacy they had never before enjoyed. The alliance left Sihanouk open to subsequent criticism that he opened the way for the Khmer Rouge holocaust. But his relations with the rebels were always strained. When the Khmer Rouge seized power in 1975 and Sihanouk returned home, they detained him and ordered his execution. Only the personal intervention of Chinese leader Zhou Enlai saved him. With Sihanouk under house arrest in the Royal Palace, the Khmer Rouge ran an ultra-radical Maoist regime from 1975 to 1979, emptying the cities to create a vast forced labour camp. An estimated 1.7 million Cambodians were executed or died of disease and hunger under their rule. Vietnam invaded Cambodia in December 1978 and toppled the Khmer Rouge a few weeks later. Freed as the Vietnamese advanced on Phnom Penh, Sihanouk found exile in Beijing and North Korea. From there, he headed an unlikely coalition of three guerrilla groups fighting the Vietnamese-installed puppet government. The war lasted a decade. In a mix of politics and theatre, Sihanouk engineered a ceasefire and moves toward national unity and peace. Sihanouk headed the United Nations-supported interim structure that ran Cambodia until the 1993 elections, lending his prestige to attempts to unite Cambodia's factions. The election was won by the royalist FUNCINPEC party of Sihanouk's son Prince Norodom Ranariddh. But it was forced into a coalition with the Cambodian People's Party of former Khmer Rouge officer Hun Sen. In September 1993, Sihanouk re-ascended the throne in a traditional Khmer coronation. But the bright promise of the elections soon faded. Four years after the polls, Hun Sen ended his constant bickering with Ranariddh by overthrowing the prince in a violent coup that shattered the results of the election. International pressure forced Hun Sen to accept Ranariddh's return for a second election in 1998, which was narrowly won by Hun Sen, but ended in more bloodshed as the royalists and other opposition parties forced a constitutional crisis by refusing to join a coalition with the CPP. Sihanouk stayed on the sidelines for most of the two-year crisis, but as demonstrators clashed in the streets of Phnom Penh, he finally intervened by urging Ranariddh to accept a new coalition with his enemy Hun Sen. During his last years, Sihanouk's profile and influence receded. While old people in the countryside still held him in reverence, the young generation regarded him as a figure of the past and one partly responsible for Cambodia's tragedy. Rarely at a loss for words, he became for a time a prolific blogger, posting his musings on current affairs and past controversies. Most of his writing was literally in his own hand - his site featured images of letters, usually in French in a cramped cursive script, along with handwritten marginalia to news clippings that caught his interest. His production tailed off, however, as he retreated further from the public eye, spending more and more time under doctor's care in Beijing. The hard-living Sihanouk had suffered ill health since the early 1990s. He endured cancer, a brain lesion and arterial, heart, lung, liver and eye ailments. Ailing and weary of politics, Sihanouk stepped down from the throne in 2004 in favour of Sihamoni, a well-liked personality but one with little of the experience needed to negotiate Cambodia's political minefields. Senior officials in Hun Sen's party were said to favour Sihamoni, a one-time ballet dancer and cultural ambassador, rather than a more combative figure to sit atop the influential throne. In late 2011, on his return from another extended stay in China, Sihanouk dramatically declared that he never intended to leave his homeland again. But true to his mercurial reputation, he flew off to Beijing just a few months later for medical care. During the same period, some of the defendants at Cambodia's UN-assisted genocide trial of former senior Khmer Rouge figures sought to divert blame from themselves by suggesting that Sihanouk, as their collaborator, shared responsibility for their actions, despite his powerlessness as their virtual prisoner. Clients are reminded: (i) to check the terms of their licence agreements for use of content outside news programming and that further advice and assistance can be obtained from the AP Archive on: Tel +44 (0) 20 7482 7482 Email: infoaparchive.com (ii) they should check with the applicable collecting society in their Territory regarding the clearance of any sound recording or performance included within the AP Television News service (iii) they have editorial responsibility for the use of all and any content included within the AP Television News service and for libel, privacy, compliance and third party rights applicable to their Territory. APTN AP-WF-10-15-12 0056GMT
TF1 20 hours: [broadcast of April 17, 2005]
TF1 News (Private - August 1982 ->)
[Cambodia: the Khmer genocide]
A2 / France 2
CAMBODIA: KHMER ROUGE VICTIM CONFESSION TAPE FOUND
TAPE_NUMBER: EF00/0074 IN_TIME: 07:19:36 - 10:17:59 // 13:13:04 LENGTH: 03:01 SOURCES: APTN RESTRICTIONS: FEED: VARIOUS (THE ABOVE TIME-CODE IS TIME-OF-DAY) SCRIPT: Eng/Khmer/Nat An extraordinary discovery in Cambodia has literally given a voice to the victims of Pol Pot's "killing fields". Researchers uncovered an audio tape of a prisoner's confession to treason, the only such tape ever found. The recording was made in 1978 at the regime's notorious torture centre, S-21. The tape is just one item of a deluge of new documentation that's surfaced ahead of the historic trials of former Khmer Rouge leaders. The tape's label reads: "The confession of Chan Nhoung - alias Nuon". Arrested for treason in 1977, the Khmer Rouge officer was jailed at the infamous S-21 detention centre. Play the tape, and he is heard telling his story in a tired voice - reciting a detailed confession peppered with stories of spies, Vietnamese plots and internal enemies bent on undermining the radical communist revolution. The guerrilla soldier then utters an admission that seals his fate. SOUNDBITE: (Khmer) "I was worried about things in the past. I was involved with the enemy, that is, the CIA. Someone called Bun Chamrouen was my contact. Brother Phi told me it wasn't a problem and that all the cadre in the unit were involved. The important thing, he said, was to be honest." SUPER CAPTION: Voice of Chan Nhoung, Khmer Rouge prisoner The recording was made at the Khmer Rouge's torture centre in Phnom Penh. Chan Nhoung was almost certainly innocent of spying, but his story - probably extracted under torture - was what his captors wanted to hear. Once they had it on tape, they dispatched to one of the thousands of mass graves in Cambodia. Fourteen-thousand others suffered the same fate at S-21, also known as Tuol Sleng, a school turned into a prison and torture centre. Today, their prison mug-shots are still kept at their old jail. Chan Nhoung's has yet to be identified. Researchers believe the recording is genuine. His original confession has been found on paper in the archives, signed by the probably illiterate man with his thumbprint. It matches the tape word for word. SOUNDBITE: (English) "I feel this is coming alive, that a prisoner who was accused and killed by the unfair court of the Khmer Rouge is coming alive and still talking to me, still telling me that what happened to him was unjust, unfair, and is still telling me, encouraging me to go on to seek for justice." SUPER CAPTION: Youk Chhang, Director of the Documentation Centre of Cambodia The Documentation Centre knew that interrogators tape-recorded some confessions - often because the prisoner was illiterate - but this is the first discovered since the centre was founded in 1995 to amass evidence that could be used to try Khmer Rouge leaders. An estimated one point seven (M) million Cambodians died during the Pol Pot regime. They were victims of overwork, famine and execution as the increasingly paranoid leaders sought scapegoats to explain away their own disaster. Two of those leaders are now awaiting trial for their crimes: Ta Mok, the former military chief of staff - known as the "Butcher" - and Khaing Khek Iev, the man who ran S-21 and probably directed the interrogation of Chan Nhoung. Prime Minister Hun Sen is rumoured to want a tribunal convened by April 17, the 25th anniversary of the day the Khmer Rouge seized Phnom Penh and evacuated the capital city's entire population to labour camps. But negotiations with the United Nations have proceeded at a snail's pace, inching toward an agreement for a Cambodian trial with enough U-N involvement to ensure justice. But as the momentum builds towards a trial, a mass of new information has been given to Cambodia's genocide research centre. Some 150-thousand pages, hundreds of new photos; all in the last three weeks. Staff won't reveal who it's come from. All they'll say is that the anonymous sources are people who want to see justice done at last. SOUNDBITE: (English) "It shows that people really want to make sure that all these things are revealed and will help us to prosecute the Khmer Rouge leaders." SUPER CAPTION: Youk Chhang Chan Nhoung's tape may not be much use to prosecutors who will have access to thousands of similar hand-written confessions. But to historians, it is a fascinating piece in the puzzle of why the Khmer Rouge brought Cambodia to its knees, causing the death of nearly one person in five. Two top Khmer Rouge leaders are still free, for now. Nuon Chea, Pol Pot's number two, and Khieu Samphan, the smooth-talking public face of the regime. Their future remains unclear. SHOTLIST: XFA Phnom Penh, January 18 2000/FILE 1. Cassette tape 2. Tape on table, hand picks it up 3. Youk Chhang takes tape to player and puts it in 4. UPSOUND (Khmer) Voice of Chan Nhoung, Khmer Rouge prisoner (over shot of cassette playing) 5. Exterior S-21 prison camp 6. Barbed wire 7. Rooms at S-21 8. Photos of prisoners 9. Photograph of one prisoner 10. Hand turns over page of book containing photos of prisoners 11. Paper containing confession of Chan Nhoung: shot zooms in 12. Thumbprint 13. SOUNDBITE (English) Youk Chhang, Director of the Documentation Centre of Cambodia APTN FILE - Approx. 1979, Cambodia 14-17 Skulls and bones of Khmer Rouge victims in field APTN FILE - April 1998: Thai-Cambodian border 18. Ta Mok APTN FILE - March 1999: Thai-Cambodian border 19. Khaing Khek Iev Pnomh Penh, January 18 2000 20. New documents at research centre in Phnom Penh 21. Photos on desk 22. Youk Chhang tips photos onto desk 23. Photos of children (victims of Khmer Rouge) 24. Researchers at centre work at computers (shot pans right) 25. SOUNDBITE: (English) Youk Chhang, Director of the Documentation Centre of Cambodia APTN FILE - Sihanoukville, Cambodia, December 1998 26. Nuon Chea 27. Khieu Samphan?
National edition: [15 February 2004 issue]
FR3 / France 3
PETER JENNINGS REPORTING: FROM THE KILLING FIELDS
ANNOUNCER The following is an ABC News Special. PETER JENNINGS A question for you. Can you imagine the return of the Nazis? In the 40 years since the Nazis were defeated, only one other group has been as utterly barbaric: the Khmer Rouge in the killing fields of Cambodia. A decade ago, they were driven out of Cambodia by the Vietnamese. What the Khmer Rouge had done to their fellow Cambodians was so unspeakably cruel, it is almost impossible to imagine that the world, especially the United States, would ever tolerate them in power again. This hour is about the return of the Khmer Rouge and American tolerance. (VO) These are the foot soldiers of the Khmer Rouge. The last time the Khmer Rouge ruled in Cambodia they killed more than a million of their fellow citizens, maybe even 2 million. Today, the communist Khmer Rouge are back, advancing on their own people again. CHHANG SONG, PRESIDENT SAVE CAMBODIA The Khmer Rouge have discredited themselves by bringing Cambodia back almost to the Stone Age, and by destroying everything which is essential for human life. JENNINGS (VO) Like the Nazis, the Khmer Rouge kept a meticulous record of their crimes. They often took photographs of what they did to their victims. WILLIAM COLBY, FORMER DIRECTOR, CIA They're vicious, brutal, totally inhuman. You know, for a while, there, if you wore glasses, you were killed, because you were an intellectual. JENNINGS Why isn't the US outraged about all this? MR COLBY I think they ought to be totally outraged about this situation. You see those piles of skulls that they've produced. It's the nearest thing to genocide I can think of. And these are the people who did it. PRINCE NORODOM SIHANOUK The Khmer Rouge, they are no more criminals. They were. They were criminals. JENNINGS (VO) Cambodia's Prince Norodom Sihanouk. In 1970, at the height of the Vietnam War, he was unwilling to help the United States fight the Vietnamese. So the United States was not at all unhappy when he was overthrown. Today, Sihanouk is the leader of a military coalition fighting against the present Cambodian government, which was installed by the Vietnamese after they defeated the Khmer Rouge. Today, Sihanouk is intensely anti - Vietnamese, so now the United States is only too happy to be his benefactor. It is simpler than it sounds. Sihanouk is America's main man in this war for control of Cambodia, and Sihanouk's most powerful partners are the murderous Khmer Rouge. PRINCE SIHANOUK I tried to control them, and I give them orders not to commit crimes. I repeat, they are no more criminals. They are patriots. REP CHESTER ATKINS, (D) MASSACHUSETTS That's a definition of patriotism that I can't imagine. The Khmer Rouge are the most genocidal people on the face of the earth. These people are maniacs. These people will come to power under any guise. JENNINGS In your opinion, Congressman, why does the United States, the Bush administration, have anything to do whatsoever with the Khmer Rouge? REP ATKINS It's a policy of hatred. Our policy is a policy that's really captured in time, in the 1970s. We're still fighting the Vietnam War, and this is the last battle of that war. And if we have to use the Khmer Rouge as a pawn in that, we'll use them. And we don't appreciate that we're being used by the Khmer Rouge, rather than the other way around. ENGLISH TEACHER We will never - STUDENTS We will never - ENGLISH TEACHER - forget - STUDENTS - forget - ENGLISH TEACHER - the horrible - STUDENTS - the horrible - ENGLISH TEACHER - crimes - STUDENTS - crimes - ENGLISH TEACHER - of the genocide. STUDENTS - of the genocide. ENGLISH TEACHER We'll never allow that nightmare to return. JENNINGS In Cambodia, do people actively think that the Khmer Rouge might return? RUTH CLEMENS, RELIEF WORKER They do. They really do. It's a real fear, and a real feeling, that it's very possible that they could come back. REP ATKINS With each passing day, the likelihood of the Khmer Rouge coming to power in Cambodia is greater and greater. JENNINGS You really believe that? REP ATKINS I really believe that. PRINCE SIHANOUK : It is true that the most efficient forces on the battlefield in the process of fighting the enemy, they are Khmer Rouge. JENNINGS The most efficient fighting force is the Khmer Rouge. PRINCE SIHANOUK The most efficient fighting forces. JENNINGS (VO) The other forces in the coalition led by Prince Sihanouk are known as the "non - communist resistance," easily recognizable by their American uniforMs They have not done as well on the battlefield as their Khmer Rouge allies. They get much of their aid from the United States, most of it secretly. JEREMY STONE, CRITIC OF US CAMBODIAN POLICY This is what you might call a Contra operation, much like the support of the Contras in Honduras, or like the operation to support the Afghan rebels in Afghanistan. PRINCE SIHANOUK I did not ask for the support of the United States of America, but it happened that she spontaneously - President Reagan in particular, and his administration, and after him, President George Bush and his administration - they gave me their friendship, and some form of aid. So I could not say no. JENNINGS So the United States is deeply involved in Cambodia again. Cambodia is on the edge of hell again. To understand how this could be, it is essential to recall America's adventure in Vietnam. By 1969, the North Vietnamese were using the eastern part of Cambodia, along the Vietnamese border, both as a route through which they infiltrated troops to South Vietnam, and as a sanctuary for troops and ammunition. Cambodia was technically neutral, which meant little to the North Vietnamese, or the United States. (VO) The Nixon administration was secretly bombing Cambodia. But when that failed to uproot the Vietnamese, the United States invaded. PRES RICHARD NIXON Cambodia is the Nixon Doctrine in its purest form. JENNINGS (VO) Many Americans will recall the uproar. It was the invasion of Cambodia which students were demonstrating against that fateful day in May at Kent State. Congress told President Nixon that the troops in Cambodia must be removed by July of 1970. But the secret bombing of Cambodia would continue until 1973. Half a million tons of bombs were dropped. The Vietnamese were never dislodged from Cambodia, but the US campaign against Cambodia was a major factor in recruiting thousands of Cambodians to the cause of the Cambodian communists - the Khmer Rouge, and their leader, Pol Pot. The man who told Cambodians over and over again that they should join the Khmer Rouge was Prince Sihanouk. (Khmer Rouge propaganda film) ANNOUNCER Crown Prince Sihanouk affectionately embraces the courageous fighters and heroes who have just come from the front. JENNINGS (VO) In 1975, when the US decided to retreat from Indochina, its client government in Cambodia could not withstand the pressure applied by the Khmer Rouge. Within days, the Khmer Rouge were in the capital. For millions of Cambodians, a nightmare they could never imagine was about to begin. (COMMERCIAL BREAK) JENNINGS The United States says there's a plan to save Cambodia, and keep the Khmer Rouge out of power; a plan for the Cambodian people to decide their own future, in elections supervised by the United Nations. The Bush administration has said that it is unequivocally opposed to the return of the Khmer Rouge - even though the plan which the US supports would automatically hand the Khmer Rouge an equal share of political power in Cambodia, even before those elections are held. Last month, about the time we were in Cambodia, the official Khmer Rouge radio said the position of the US on a political settlement for the war in Cambodia is "very correct". So the United States says it's against the Khmer Rouge. The Khmer Rouge says the United States is doing the right thing. As the King of Siam once observed, "It's a puzzlement". (VO) The pieces of this puzzle begin to fit together inside Western Cambodia along the border with Thailand. From here, in what they call the "liberated zone," the Khmer Rouge and the non - communists are pushing their way towards the Cambodian heartland. (interviewing) How long has he been fighting? SOLDIER (through interpreter) Ten years. JENNINGS (VO) The Bush administration says there is no cooperation here between America's non - communist clients and the Khmer Rouge. RICHARD SOLOMON, ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF STATE We have made very clear to Prince Sihanouk and the other non - communists that we want no cooperation, and that our support for them stays with them. JENNINGS (VO) Richard Solomon is the Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs. SEC SOLOMON They are all part of the same ball of wax. JENNINGS (VO) He was assigned to talk to us about Cambodia policy. (interviewing) This question of cooperation between the non - communist resistance and the Khmer Rouge - you say it doesn't exist. Am I correct? SEC SOLOMON We see no pattern of cooperation among these people that gets to the problem that we're all worried about, which is the Khmer Rouge making a military comeback. We have repeatedly indicated to Prince Sihanouk and others that anything that looks like that cooperation is absolutely a no - no - unacceptable to us. BERTIL LINTINER, JOURNALIST Well, basically, the Khmer Rouge does most of the fighting. And afterwards they give some credit for this fighting to the non - communist components in order to make it respectable from an international point of view. JENNINGS (VO) Ten years ago, Bertil Lintiner, who is Swedish, was working on this border with Cambodian refugees, as a badly - broken Khmer Rouge were on the run from the Vietnamese army. Today, he's a journalist for the Far Eastern Economic Review, reporting on the comeback of the Khmer Rouge. MR LINTINER The driving force there has always been the Khmer Rouge, so there was always military coordination. JENNINGS Do you have a coordination operation? GENERAL SAKHH SATUCSAN No, no, no, no. No. We plan by our own self. We plan - we don't have any cooperation. We don't have any coordination. JENNINGS (VO) When America retreated from Indochina in 1975, so did General Sakh Satucsan. Now an American citizen, he is the senior military commander of the non - communist forces inside the liberated zone. He says the non - communists, not the Khmer Rouge, are leading the charge. GEN SAKH The Khmer Rouge come in after, but we don't allow them to do anything. JENNINGS (VO) General Sakh and many of his soldiers say they despise the Khmer Rouge, and so any cooperation between them is a shock, because of what the Khmer Rouge did when they were in charge. Every village and town had its killing field. Tamampukh had its killing field. Tama Puk is 15 miles inside Cambodia from the Thai border, in the so - called "liberated zone". Last December, according to General Sakh, the non - communist forces defeated Cambodian government troops here. Afterwards, the organized this rally, complete with banners in English. But after the battle, what were the Khmer Rouge doing here? (interviewing) According to the people in the village, there were Khmer Rouge soldiers in Tama Puk, about 70 of them. GEN SAKH Yes. I don't count the Khmer Rouge, but I saw. I saw by my eyes, and I received a report from the field commander. When we are fighting at Tamanpukh, only we fight to get them under our command. But we are surprised. We are surprised following after we occupied the area, so many Khmer Rouge. We knew about the Khmer Rouge who stay on that area. But (unintelligible) fighting, not yet. But they come after. JENNINGS Are people in Congress aware that the Khmer Rouge and the non - communist coalition operate together in the field? REP ATKINS I think, again, people are aware that the walls between the non - communist resistance and the Khmer Rouge are coming down. JENNINGS (VO) This is what he's referring to. The soldier on the left is the non - communist; those on the right, in the plain green, are Khmer Rouge. PRINCE SIHANOUK On the battlefield, we are forced, naturally, to go on fighting the enemy side by side. That does not mean that they are mixed, that they act together. JENNINGS And if they were fighting together, side by side, you would find that, in your words, "unacceptable". SEC SOLOMON Absolutely. And we have indicated so very clearly to Sihanouk and the other non - communists. JENNINGS What would we do about it? SEC SOLOMON The law - if there was a judgment made that this violated the law, then we would have to cut off arMs Up till now - JENNINGS Of the non - communist resistance? SEC SOLOMON Correct. We are not supplying - I'm sorry, support - we do not supply lethal support, but we would have to cut off our support to the non - communists. Our - JENNINGS In fact, you did tell me we would have to cut off arms to the non - communist resistance. SEC SOLOMON Well, I made a mistake, then. We do not supply any legal assistance to the non - communists. PRINCE SIHANOUK Sometimes the CIA, Central Intelligence Agency of USA, gave weapons to the non - communist forces. Perhaps, you know, your government and the CIA are not cooperating with each other. JENNINGS (VO) According to sources on all sides of the conflict who know, the United States does supply weapons and ammunition to the non - communists. Our sources include current as well as former members of the US government. The weapons arrive here in Cambodia via America's allies, Singapore and Thailand. You can see them everywhere in the war zone. The non - communists also get weapons from the Chinese and, on the battlefield, even from their partners, the Khmer Rouge. PRINCE SIHANOUK From time to time, on the battlefield, when the Khmer Rouge saw that we had no more ammunitions to go on fighting the enemy, spontaneously they gave us ammunitions. And sometimes they gave heavy weapons. JENNINGS (VO) So, while the Bush administration may say there is a clear demarcation between the non - communists and the Khmer Rouge, it just isn't so in the war zone. REP ATKINS The Khmer Rouge have always used Sihanouk as their cover, as their respectability. He's a puppet of the Khmer Rouge, he's controlled by them. Indeed, the Khmer Rouge have enormous influence, now, throughout the Sihanouk organization. JENNINGS It is said that, even in this house, the Khmer Rouge have representatives who watch over you all the time, and who really, in essence, don't let you operate freely and independently. True? Wrong? PRINCE SIHANOUK Oh, no, it is very wrong, very untrue. Very untrue. There is just the one Khmer Rouge with me. And never I allow him to say anything - to dictate anything - to me. CHHANG SONG We relied on Prince Sihanouk in taming the Khmer Rouge. In fact, the emperor has no clothes. In fact, in supporting such a coalition, the United States is supporting the Khmer Rouge; the United States is working for the return of the Khmer Rouge to Cambodia. (COMMERCIAL BREAK) JENNINGS (VO) In the Cambodian countryside, a wedding. When the Khmer Rouge were in power, the Khmer Rouge decided who you could marry. If a bride and groom defied them, the bride and groom could be executed. Cambodia is trying to heal itself. There was so much to recover from. Under the Khmer Rouge, religion was abolished and many monks were killed. There were no markets: the Khmer Rouge abolished money. Of the 20,000 teachers in the 1970s, two thirds were gone. Anyone caught speaking English was sentenced to death. ENGLISH TEACHER Good evening. STUDENTS Good evening. ENGLISH TEACHER Ladies and gentlemen - STUDENTS Ladies and gentlemen - ENGLISH TEACHER - welcome to "What's My Job?" STUDENTS - welcome to "What's My Job?" ENGLISH TEACHER Do you get a big salary? STUDENTS Do you get a big salary? ENGLISH TEACHER Yes, I do. STUDENTS Yes, I do. JENNINGS (VO) In Phnom Penh, they call this "English Street". Every evening, thousands of Cambodians struggle to learn English. (interviewing) When you learn to speak English really well, what are you going to do? Are you going to become a teacher or a businessman? ENGLISH STUDENT Yeah, yeah, yeah. JENNINGS Or a journalist? ENGLISH STUDENT I want to be a journalist. JENNINGS You want to be a journalist? ENGLISH STUDENT Yes. JENNINGS Oh, my sympathies! (VO) In Cambodia, he'd be a war correspondent, and the war is real. Only 30 miles from the capital, in a Red Cross hospital, you can see evidence of the increased Khmer Rouge attacks. The victims are civilians. (interviewing) How old are you? 1ST PATIENT (through interpreter) I'm 15 years old. JENNINGS And what happened to you? 1ST PATIENT (through interpreter) I was shot. 2ND PATIENT (through interpreter) I know them. They are the Khmer Rouge. JENNINGS (VO) Everybody in Cambodia knows what the Khmer Rouge are capable of. However bad they think their Vietnamese - installed government is, the unifying force is fear of a Khmer Rouge comeback. The Cambodian government had believed, perhaps naively, that when the Vietnamese withdrew, their isolation would end. MR COLBY Let's face it, the Vietnamese, essentially, have withdrawn. That was the standard we set about a year ago, which said that if they would withdraw from Cambodia, we would consider normalization with them. Well, they've withdrawn. JENNINGS (VO) Ten years after arriving in Cambodia, the Vietnamese army withdrew last September. From everybody's point of view, the Vietnamese had stayed too long. The had driven out the Khmer Rouge. However, they left in place a communist government in their own image, which Cambodia's harshest critics continue to find unacceptable. Even though there has been social and political reform; though there are many non - communists in government now, Amnesty International has criticized the government for mistreating its political opponents. The man the Vietnamese left in charge is Hun Sen In the 1970s, he was an officer in the Khmer Rouge who defected to the Vietnamese. They installed him as prime minister of Cambodia after they invaded. (interviewing) The United States government says that you are an unacceptable figurehead, that you are a puppet of the Vietnamese. HUN SEN (through interpreter) For me, it is a very difficult position. Because at the same time, I have been accused of being a Khmer Rouge puppet, of being a puppet of Vietnam. I don't understand it. MR COLBY They are anti - Khmer Rouge. There are a number of them who were in the Khmer Rouge who fled from the Khmer Rouge, either out of fear or revulsion, and it doesn't matter very much which. JENNINGS Prime Minister, you knew the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s. Have they changed? HUN SEN (through interpreter) So far, I see no changes in this group. They only want to show the change in appearance for the diplomatic consumption. JENNINGS Are you afraid of the Khmer Rouge? HUN SEN (through interpreter) Well, for us, the fighting against the return of the Khmer Rouge is a must. Whether we are afraid or not afraid of them, we have to fight against them. JENNINGS (VO) Hun Sen has the tanks which the Vietnamese left him, but he does not have much of an army, and he has been widely criticized for drafting 15 - and even 14 - year - olds. There is very little appetite among them for fighting the Khmer Rouge. (interviewing) Do you have the same defense perimeter in the west? (VO) The defense minister took us to the front, on the edge of the second - largest city, Battambang. He said the perimeter was secure, that this small - arms fire we heard was nothing. That night, after we left, the Khmer Rouge shelled the town. The defense minister knows that his troops alone, without the Vietnamese, have a real problem fighting forces supported by two superpowers - the United States and China. (on camera) Militarily, the Chinese keep the Khmer Rouge in business. And the relationship between China and the US has been central to America's Cambodia policy for three American presidents. Mr Carter, Mr Reagan and Mr Bush have all gone along with the Chinese aim of trying to weaken, even humiliate Vietnam, using the Khmer Rouge as their sword. In 1978, President Carter called the Khmer Rouge "the worst violators of human rights in the world". But his national security advisor, Zbigniew Brzezinski, said the Chinese should be encouraged to rebuild the Khmer Rouge as a way to keep the pressure on Vietnam. Brzezinski prevailed. (VO) During the Reagan years, and now in the Bush administration, the US has made sure that the United Nations seat reserved for Cambodia has been held first by the Khmer Rouge alone and, more recently, by the coalition led by Prince Sihanouk, there on the left, but still dominated by the Khmer Rouge. There, on the right, is Pol Pot's representative. (interviewing) What difference do you think it makes if the US government will not have a relationship with Cambodia? JONATHAN CLEMENS They've led this international aid boycott, and a recognition in the UN of the Khmer Rouge - dominated coalition government. And the international community has found it difficult to go against that leadership. The isolation and the lack of access to aid is quite evident on the ground. JENNINGS (VO) Jonathan and Ruth Clemens are American Mennonites, sent here to help by the Mennonite Central Committee - the MCC. At one point, thanks to the Khmer Rouge violence of the '70s, there were reportedly only 45 Cambodian doctors here for 7 million people. REP ATKINS We won't allow humanitarian supplies, and haven't for the last decade, to go in and help children who are starving; to help people who are in desperate need of medical assistance. We blocked the UN from doing things that would help children and elderly people who have nothing to do with this war, but who are simply the victims of it, at the same time that we won't isolate, in a similar fashion, the Khmer Rouge. MS CLEMENS It's illegal to spend American money in Cambodia, so we have to apply for a special license to do that. MCC was refused a license for educational supplies until we wrote a lot of letters and tried to change that. And they finally did agree to give us a license. JENNINGS Refused a license for what educational supplies? MS CLEMENS It was for pencils and paper, and little school kits - just very simple things, very non - lethal. SEC SOLOMON Providing school books isn't going to get you very far very long. JENNINGS Does it ever embarrass you, as a senior American official, that non - governmental organizations, Americans, are not allowed to get school books in the country to educate Cambodian children? SEC SOLOMON Look, the issue, again, as a senior American official, is how can we create a process, here, which will end the civil war in Cambodia. That, in my view, is the highest kind of calling. JENNINGS What role do you think the United States is playing regarding Cambodia? LINDIL MACLEAN Frankly? An obstructionist one. JENNINGS (VO) Lindil MacLean represents all of Australia's relief organizations in Cambodia. She is also her government's eyes and ears here. (interviewing) From your point of view, why do you think the rest of the world is dragging its feet on Cambodia? MS MACLEAN Essentially, I think it's because this side has been so isolated. It doesn't have a propaganda machine, it doesn't sell itself well. In the early years of this government, there were a lot of probleMs There were restrictions on people. But that has changed so dramatically, especially since the Vietnamese have left the country. And the American government refuses to concede they're looking at those changes in what is taking place. JENNINGS We've now been through the Reagan administration, we're not in the Bush administration, and we still recognize Khmer Rouge at the United Nations. SEC SOLOMON Again, what are we trying to do? We're trying to get a UN peace process, here, so that the Cambodian people can themselves choose a government that they support. PRINCE SIHANOUK There are among US officials - diplomats - there are a few Americans who appreciate the efficiency of the Khmer Rouge army on the battlefield. JENNINGS Who are those people? PRINCE SIHANOUK No, I don't want to create a crisis among us, but - JENNINGS Senior American officials? PRINCE SIHANOUK I apologize, because, you know - no, I don't lack courage, but please don't oblige me to be involved in your affairs. I don't want it to go further. JENNINGS But you clearly imply that there are senior American officials who believe in what the Khmer Rouge is doing on the battlefield? PRINCE SIHANOUK I accuse nobody. Please, don't force me to speak about Americans. JENNINGS I have never heard you so reluctant to talk about America, almost - forgive me, sir - almost shy to talk about America. PRINCE SIHANOUK I had enough disputes with America in the past. I don't want to have more difficulties. JENNINGS Are you afraid of losing American support? PRINCE SIHANOUK I repeat that I don't interfere in your affairs, and I'm asking for nothing from you. You are a sovereign state, a great nation. It is up to you to decide to go to this or that direction. I have no comment. (COMMERCIAL BREAK) JENNINGS (VO) All along the border between Thailand and Cambodia, on the Thailand side, there are refugee camps for Cambodians who, a decade ago, fled the fighting between the Khmer Rouge and the Vietnamese. Even though the United States will not give a penny for assistance inside Cambodia, the US is the largest donor of aid in these refugee camps. In half a dozen such camps, US aid is distributed through the United Nations. But the camps are controlled by the various Cambodian military factions, which means US aid is going to the military organizations, including the Khmer Rouge. Here, at Site 2, controlled by the non - communists, the 150,000 people are virtually prisoners. As in all the camps, the refugees are part of the war effort, whether they like it or not. ANDY PENDALTON Because we're so close to the battle front, because there are so many armed men within a stone's throw of Site 2 itself, weapons can travel back and forth. JENNINGS (VO) Andy Pendalton is a senior field officer with UNBRO, the United Nation's Border Relief Operation. MR PENDALTON Weapons are buried outside of the camp, and there's an illegal sale of arMs And someone that wants to put his hands on a hand grenade can do so for less than 50 cents. SUSAN WALKER These people have been kept at the border for 10 years in these conditions. When they came out, they were escaping the terrors of the Khmer Rouge. They were totally devastated. People were dying by the hundreds. And they've slowly come back to health. So if you go in the camps now, you may even say, "Oh, it looks quite nice". But it's not nice at all. JENNINGS (VO) Susan Walker is the regional director of Handicap International. They are very busy. MR PENDALTON And there's probably more land mines strewn along this border than just about anywhere in the world. The Khmer Rouge put down land mines, the Vietnamese have put down land mines, the Phnom Penh government and the non - communist resistance have put down land mines. And nobody knows where each other's land mines are. In the last three weeks alone, we've had four people, all of them women and children, with one man this week, making the total five people that have stepped on the land mines. And what they did was venture out beyond the perimeter of the camp to go out in the forest and look for something to add to their diet - crabs or roots or something like that. And they stepped on land mines. And it's a horrible sight to see someone brought into camp with their leg dangling, barely hanging on, from the knee below. JENNINGS (VO) Farther south along the frontier, Site 8 - 35,000 people here. The caps which these young men are wearing make it clear this camp is controlled by the Khmer Rouge. DR EDWIN PUGH There's a head of camp that is Khmer Rouge. The camp is divided into 13 sections. There is a Khmer Rouge - appointed section leader. The sections are divided into streets, each street has its own leader. And within the streets there are Khmer Rouge leaders. JENNINGS (VO) Edwin Pugh has been at Site 8 for almost two years. He knows how the Khmer Rouge operate. At night, for example, refugees here are forced to carry food and ammunition over those mountains to the Khmer Rouge fighters inside Cambodia. The US has not threatened to cut off its share of aid to this camp. Washington has not used its influence to remove the refugees from Khmer Rouge control. REP ATKINS Those people are being used as war materiel, as war stockpiles. The Khmer Rouge has already forced 15,000 people back up out of their camps, many of those people held against their will, to fight. DR PUGH We're in one of the most malaria - infested areas of the world. The people that live in camp do not experience much malaria. If they're forcibly sent back across the border - we're talking only a few kilometers - then many of them will get malaria, and will get it severely. And there will be a lot of deaths. JENNINGS (VO) No one knows how many civilians are captive to the Khmer Rouge. Up and down the border, there are also secret Khmer Rouge military camps, where thousands of other civilians live. MS WALKER This past summer of '89, there was a polio epidemic. Thirty - one children were brought in from the three surrounding military camps - hidden camps that the UN and the voluntary agencies don't got to. And out of those 31 children - they were under the age of 5 - three children died, and the remaining children had varying degrees of paralysis. And we treated them in the hospital, and many of these children were taken back to the camps at night, because the Khmer Rouge did not want them to stay longer in Site 8. And their treatment was not finished, and they were taken back to the military camps. And after pressure was put on by the United Nations and the Red Cross, the Khmer Rouge agreed to have a vaccination campaign for the children in these camps. But they said, "You cannot come in our camps. We will bring the children out". And they trucked out 10,000 children under the age of 15. DR PUGH Anybody who supports the Khmer Rouge - and the United States may say they do not, but by supporting the coalition, you are in part supporting the Khmer Rouge - anybody who supports the Khmer Rouge, in my eyes, is taking a morally indefensible position. MR COLBY They still run the people under their control with the same Draconian hand. JENNINGS And our government supports the coalition in which they are the strongest party? MR COLBY I think wrongly. Yeah. No, I'm very firm on that. I don't get emotional here, because I think that in order to try to get the American government to move, you have to convince them that it's in our interest - our interest and decency - that we end any relationship whatsoever, even indirect, with the Khmer Rouge. Congress has passed a law to that effect. You'd think we'd be applying it. JENNINGS You were at the Cambodian peace talks. You sat not far from a leading member of the Khmer Rouge who, I assume, you accept is guilty of genocide. Why didn't you try to have him arrested? SEC SOLOMON The question is, what does that lead to in the way of a settlement of this conflict? You arrest one man, that doesn't solve the problem. The process - JENNINGS But it does confirm that Public Law 100502 of the US Congress, which says that we should hold accountable those who are responsible for genocide under international law, and we're negotiating with them. SEC SOLOMON And the question is, how can you prevent - provide a political structure in which the Cambodian people, or the international community can bring these people to justice? JENNINGS Why not arrest Pol Pot? SEC SOLOMON I'd be delighted to see Pol Pot arrested. JENNINGS Why don't we make an effort to arrest Pol Pot? SEC SOLOMON He is not on territory we control. JENNINGS Are there not new guidelines which say we can go to other countries, even without their permission, and arrest people we deem guilty of international crimes? SEC SOLOMON I think the way to put it is that one of the things we are trying to build into this political settlement process are both guarantees against the kind of violence that Pol Pot perpetrated, and the creation of a political process, again, where people like Pol Pot could be brought to justice. JENNINGS (VO) Today, Pol Pot lives here, on the Thai - Cambodian border, under the political protection of the Thai military. Though he has led the Khmer Rouge for almost 30 years, though he is the architect of Cambodia's genocide, there has been no American campaign to arrest him. (interviewing) Do you think the United States should call for an international, Nuremberg - like tribunal to judge the Khmer Rouge? PRINCE SIHANOUK No kidding! I support the idea. I support. JENNINGS Why do you think the United States has not done that? PRINCE SIHANOUK It is up to you. You are a sovereign country. I have no problem. JENNINGS But as of now, sir, you are regarded as the United States' main man. PRINCE SIHANOUK I was told that the Americans, they believe that I was mad - not "main," but mad. JENNINGS Mad? PRINCE SIHANOUK Mad. JENNINGS (VO) The United States is involved with the Thai military and other Asian allies in a secret effort to coordinate the military campaign of the non - communist forces against the Cambodian government. (interviewing) The covert US aid budget for the non - communist resistance now is estimated at about $20 million. Where does that go? GEN SAKH I can't say what about the covert aid. We don't know exactly the amount of the covert aid. JENNINGS But who coordinates this? GEN SAKH I don't know who is the leader of the coordination. MR LINTINER Well, there is a working group which looks after the support to the resistance in Cambodia. And it's more than that. They have also target certain areas inside Cambodia, and they tell the resistance that "You can go in here, you blow up that bridge and you attack that camp," and that sort of thing. They basically help them with military planning and strategy, as well as supplying arms to the resistance. JENNINGS How often do you meet with the Cambodian working group? GEN SAKH Oh, you know, normally, since one month, two months. It depends if we do not have any means on our hands, we have to make an appeal to those kinds of things to help us, because we can't do without any weapons and ammunition. JENNINGS Do you go to the Cambodian working group and you tell them the weapons you want? GEN SAKH We explain what we need. JENNINGS Hi. EMBASSY OFFICIAL Hi. I'm Peter Dunseth. JENNINGS (VO) We tried, but failed, to interview officials at the American embassy in Bangkok, so we submitted a list of questions about embassy involvement in the Cambodia working group. (interviewing) That's it, there. As I said, they're specifically - they're questions specifically designed for the embassy to answer. And I'd like written replies to them, if you won't talk to me on the record. EMBASSY OFFICIAL Not on the record. I'd be happy to talk to you on background. But in terms of addressing the Cambodia issue, Washington's guidance was to - JENNINGS But nobody here - the embassy - the ambassador won't answer any questions on the record, and you won't answer any questions at all. EMBASSY OFFICIAL Right. We'll send these back to Washington, tell them that you're asking the questions of the embassy, and ask them how we should deal with that. JENNINGS Okay. Nice to see you again. EMBASSY OFFICIAL No promises on that. JENNINGS I appreciate it. EMBASSY OFFICIAL Good to see you. JENNINGS Thanks very much. Take care. Bye - bye.We asked you about the participation of the US embassy staff in the Cambodian working group, and you said, "We do not comment on questions involving purported intelligence or covert activities". Why no comment? SEC SOLOMON I think that's a standard position that relates to all intelligence activities. It doesn't relate to anything specific to Cambodia. JENNINGS Why, in your view, is this working group covert in the first place? Why is it not open? SEC SOLOMON Well, here, I think that the question has been answered. We don't get off into details. JENNINGS But you've no explanation of why the Cambodia working group must be covert? SEC SOLOMON My guess is, the host country doesn't really want to have foreign troops on its borders, and would just as soon the problem went away. JENNINGS It is also possible that it's because there is some involvement in the working group with the Khmer Rouge, not just with the non - communist resistance? SEC SOLOMON Well, again, I can't get off into details, much of which I'm not even aware of, frankly. JENNINGS (VO) This man knows the details. Special Forces Colonel Denny Lane, former military attach at the Bangkok embassy. When he was still on active duty in Thailand, he was assigned to the UN Border Relief Operation, where he had good access to the Khmer Rouge. The Pentagon said we couldn't talk to him. He says the US ambassador in Thailand ordered him off the border because we had arrived. (interviewing) Where does the buck stop? REP ATKINS Well, I think the buck stops in the State Department. The buck stops with Secretary of State and, ultimately, with the president. When the American people know what our policy is, and what the results of it are, they won't stand for it. MR PENDALTON These people have suffered a tremendous, tremendous deal, from literally being the pawns in the middle of a political situation. And I think this problem needs to be solved with urgency, and with fairness, and a lot of attention needs to be given to it now - actually, yesterday. JENNINGS (VO) So much suffering; such a tortured history. It really isn't so complicated, after all. Cambodia, in danger of being plunged into darkness again; the United States in danger of being on the wrong side of history. (COMMERCIAL BREAK) JENNINGS Fifteen years ago this week, the US officially withdrew from Indochina, but as you can see from this hour, the American experience there is not over. Later this evening, after your local news, I hope you'll join us for a live debate on what America should do there now.