Montage of images reflecting life in 20th century America up to World War II
Streets of Manhattan New York City crowded with pedestrians prior to World War II. Views of Americans at work: miners; farmers; factory workers; office workers. A drafting room. Montage of inventions in America: lightning rod atop roof; cotton gin in operation; telegrapher using a key; anesthetists in operating theater; rotary newspaper printing press; a telephone; an arc welder; early incandescent lamp; early submarines; steam turbine; 4-engine high wing airliner; early X-ray tube; gyroscope compass; singer sewing machine; early television; farmer hooks cows to mechanical milking machine, cat expresses dismay at not getting milk; architectural draftsmen at work; rows of apartment buildings; automobiles crowding roads; sanitation street sweeper truck at work; eggs and dairy products in refrigerated case; Surgical team in an operating theater; Scenes in a modern U.S. hospital; children being cared for, and in schools and colleges; Soldiers marching during World War I; U.S. soldiers marching in World War II; people relaxing on crowded beach; recreational hunting and fishing activity; A football game in progress; a baseball game; horseracing; track and field events; a rodeo; a basketball game; golfing; Ten pin bowling; boys play marbles; frog jumping contest; skiing; springboard diving; motorboat racing; water skiing;ice skaters with sails; Joe Louis boxing with Max Schmeling in 1938; auto racing with cars crashing; Railroad timetables in a rack; Henry Dreyfuss Commodore Vanderbilt New York Central locomotive and interior of dining car; 1935 Chevrolet sedan pulling a trailer; Road sign "Arizona welcomes you"; Motorcycle policeman pulls driver over; roadside motor hotel; girl serving at drive-in diner; signs for hot dogs, beer, cheesburgers; workers preparing sandwiches, pancakes,bacon and eggs, coffee and coca cola, using some machinery; Customers eating at a lunch counter; Welcome sign at Van Nuys California with symbols for Kiwanis, American Legion, Rotary; a Delta Sigma Phi fraternity building. Scene of a person's hand signing a membership certificate document for the Calibou Lake Mountain Club. Location: United States USA. Date: 1940.
CHARTRES: MOTORCYCLES OF COLLECTION, EXHIBITION BEFORE THE SALE
Loire Bretagne
FLT-1 DigiBeta
Robert Fulton Jr. World Motorcycle Tour (Middle East, South Asia, & Europe)
[News in Brief, 5/10/54] Charlotte, NC: President Eisenhower deboards plane, greets officials. Walks with others in Freedom Park. Crowd shot. VS eating with Army Sec. Stevens. Drives through park in open car, waves to crowd. [16:18:12] Washington DC: Mrs. Eisenhower poses with gift of a decorative savings bond. Poses with Ms. Humphrey. [16:18:34] Korea: Sec. of Defense Wilson and wife deboard plane, greet officials. CU Wilson. [16:18:59] Fort Lee, NJ: People in line at movie theater. Marquis: Glen Miller Story w/Jimmy Stewart. CU sign: 50th Anniv. of Fort Lee. Women in turn-of-century bathing suits pose for film re-creation. Fort Lee's mayor poses with movie mogul and plaque commeration early movie theater in Fort Lee. CU plaque. [16:19:52] Kids in Sports: Paris: Young boy, Danny, has helmetss put on by his mother. VS Danny riding motorcycle. Poses at end with lollipop. [16:20:39] John Day, OR: Junior rodeo. Boys and girls ride bulls.
India: riding a pre-war motorcycle
TF1 News (Private - August 1982 ->)
[News in Brief, 5/10/54] Charlotte, NC: President Eisenhower deboards plane, greets officials. Walks with others in Freedom Park. Crowd shot. VS eating with Army Sec. Stevens. Drives through park in open car, waves to crowd. [16:18:12] Washington DC: Mrs. Eisenhower poses with gift of a decorative savings bond. Poses with Ms. Humphrey. [16:18:34] Korea: Sec. of Defense Wilson and wife deboard plane, greet officials. CU Wilson. [16:18:59] Fort Lee, NJ: People in line at movie theater. Marquis: Glen Miller Story w/Jimmy Stewart. CU sign: 50th Anniv. of Fort Lee. Women in turn-of-century bathing suits pose for film re-creation. Fort Lee's mayor poses with movie mogul and plaque commeration early movie theater in Fort Lee. CU plaque. [16:19:52] Kids in Sports: Paris: Young boy, Danny, has helmetss put on by his mother. VS Danny riding motorcycle. Poses at end with lollipop. [16:20:39] John Day, OR: Junior rodeo. Boys and girls ride bulls.
FLT-2 DigiBeta
Robert Fulton Jr. World Motorcycle Tour
Special edition: [11 November 2021 issue]
TF1 Special
[News in Brief, 5/10/54] Charlotte, NC: President Eisenhower deboards plane, greets officials. Walks with others in Freedom Park. Crowd shot. VS eating with Army Sec. Stevens. Drives through park in open car, waves to crowd. [16:18:12] Washington DC: Mrs. Eisenhower poses with gift of a decorative savings bond. Poses with Ms. Humphrey. [16:18:34] Korea: Sec. of Defense Wilson and wife deboard plane, greet officials. CU Wilson. [16:18:59] Fort Lee, NJ: People in line at movie theater. Marquis: Glen Miller Story w/Jimmy Stewart. CU sign: 50th Anniv. of Fort Lee. Women in turn-of-century bathing suits pose for film re-creation. Fort Lee's mayor poses with movie mogul and plaque commeration early movie theater in Fort Lee. CU plaque. [16:19:52] Kids in Sports: Paris: Young boy, Danny, has helmetss put on by his mother. VS Danny riding motorcycle. Poses at end with lollipop. [16:20:39] John Day, OR: Junior rodeo. Boys and girls ride bulls.
PA-0588 Digibeta
American Road, The
[News in Brief, 5/10/54] Charlotte, NC: President Eisenhower deboards plane, greets officials. Walks with others in Freedom Park. Crowd shot. VS eating with Army Sec. Stevens. Drives through park in open car, waves to crowd. [16:18:12] Washington DC: Mrs. Eisenhower poses with gift of a decorative savings bond. Poses with Ms. Humphrey. [16:18:34] Korea: Sec. of Defense Wilson and wife deboard plane, greet officials. CU Wilson. [16:18:59] Fort Lee, NJ: People in line at movie theater. Marquis: Glen Miller Story w/Jimmy Stewart. CU sign: 50th Anniv. of Fort Lee. Women in turn-of-century bathing suits pose for film re-creation. Fort Lee's mayor poses with movie mogul and plaque commeration early movie theater in Fort Lee. CU plaque. [16:19:52] Kids in Sports: Paris: Young boy, Danny, has helmetss put on by his mother. VS Danny riding motorcycle. Poses at end with lollipop. [16:20:39] John Day, OR: Junior rodeo. Boys and girls ride bulls.
VTM-78BE Beta SP
YESTERDAY'S NEWSREELS
[News in Brief, 5/10/54] Charlotte, NC: President Eisenhower deboards plane, greets officials. Walks with others in Freedom Park. Crowd shot. VS eating with Army Sec. Stevens. Drives through park in open car, waves to crowd. [16:18:12] Washington DC: Mrs. Eisenhower poses with gift of a decorative savings bond. Poses with Ms. Humphrey. [16:18:34] Korea: Sec. of Defense Wilson and wife deboard plane, greet officials. CU Wilson. [16:18:59] Fort Lee, NJ: People in line at movie theater. Marquis: Glen Miller Story w/Jimmy Stewart. CU sign: 50th Anniv. of Fort Lee. Women in turn-of-century bathing suits pose for film re-creation. Fort Lee's mayor poses with movie mogul and plaque commeration early movie theater in Fort Lee. CU plaque. [16:19:52] Kids in Sports: Paris: Young boy, Danny, has helmetss put on by his mother. VS Danny riding motorcycle. Poses at end with lollipop. [16:20:39] John Day, OR: Junior rodeo. Boys and girls ride bulls.
[News in Brief, 5/10/54] Charlotte, NC: President Eisenhower deboards plane, greets officials. Walks with others in Freedom Park. Crowd shot. VS eating with Army Sec. Stevens. Drives through park in open car, waves to crowd. [16:18:12] Washington DC: Mrs. Eisenhower poses with gift of a decorative savings bond. Poses with Ms. Humphrey. [16:18:34] Korea: Sec. of Defense Wilson and wife deboard plane, greet officials. CU Wilson. [16:18:59] Fort Lee, NJ: People in line at movie theater. Marquis: Glen Miller Story w/Jimmy Stewart. CU sign: 50th Anniv. of Fort Lee. Women in turn-of-century bathing suits pose for film re-creation. Fort Lee's mayor poses with movie mogul and plaque commeration early movie theater in Fort Lee. CU plaque. [16:19:52] Kids in Sports: Paris: Young boy, Danny, has helmetss put on by his mother. VS Danny riding motorcycle. Poses at end with lollipop. [16:20:39] John Day, OR: Junior rodeo. Boys and girls ride bulls.
AFP-73AY 16mm; VTM-73AY Beta SP; NET-18 DigiBeta (at 01:27:13:10); Beta SP
1930'S MISCELLANEOUS NEWSREELS #20
Indonesia Volcano 2
AP-APTN-0930: Indonesia Volcano 2 Thursday, 4 November 2010 STORY:Indonesia Volcano 2- REPLAY Large pre-dawn blast at Mount Merapi, volcano expert LENGTH: 03:29 FIRST RUN: 0230 RESTRICTIONS: AP Clients Only TYPE: Indonesian/Nat SOURCE: AP TELEVISION STORY NUMBER: 663705 DATELINE: Various - 4 Nov 2010 LENGTH: 03:29 AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY SHOTLIST (FIRST RUN 0130 AUSTRALIA NZ PRIME NEWS - 04 NOVEMBER 2010) Klaten District, Central Java ++DUSK SHOTS++ 1. Wide of motorists riding away from volcano, tilt up to clouds and plumes of smoke from volcano 2. Close of huge ash cloud 3. Mid of motorcycles and cars driving away from mountain 4. Close of men on motorcycles wearing facemasks 5. Wide of two men looking at volcano wearing facemasks 6. SOUNDBITE: (Indonesian) Winarto, villager: "I'm really worried because it (ash clouds) will badly affect our bodies. The dust can seriously damage our lungs and in most cases, we can die because of the heat." 7. Wide of villagers stopping by road to look at ash clouds emerging from volcano 8. Close of huge plume in sky 9. Mid of residents wearing facemasks, watching ash cloud 10. Close of motorcyclist wearing face mask, watching ash cloud in sky 11. Rear shot of motorists, tilt up to huge plume rising into skyline 12. Close of smoke clouds 13. SOUNDBITE: (Indonesian) Sukarjo Wiyono, villager: "I'm scared but I'm still observing the situation. If things are not too bad I still need to stay here to find grass for my cows." 14. Wide of house and dog running away from volcano 15. Close of ash on roof of house 16. Mid of dog running away 17. Mid change focus of leaves covered with ash 18. Mid of truck driving away, tilt up to cloud and ash emerging from volcano (FIRST RUN 0230 NEWS UPDATE - 04 NOVEMBER 2010) Jogja City, Jogjakarta Province 19. Various exteriors of volcanologist's office 20. Various of seismograph 21. Wide of Dr R Sukhyar, head of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Geological Agency 22. Mid of Dr Sukhyar 23. SOUNDBITE: (Indonesian) Dr R Sukhyar, head of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Geological Agency: "Since yesterday afternoon, Mount Merapi has been spewing ash and clouds up to 6.5 kilometres high. It's also throwing out debris and large materials which have landed near the area. The volcanic ash has been blown and is spread out over a large area." 24. Wide of man looking at seismograph STORYLINE Indonesia's deadly volcano erupted again on Thursday, pitting out towering clouds of hot gas and debris in a powerful early morning explosion. Dr R Sukhyar, head of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Geological Agency, said Mount Merapi had been "spewing ash and clouds up to 6.5 kilometres high." The pre-dawn eruption followed a much more powerful blast on Wednesday night that chased people from villages and emergency shelters along its scorched slopes. In Klaten district in Central Java on Thursday, dozens of villagers fled down the slopes to escape the searing ash. "I'm really worried because it will badly affect our bodies," said one villager. "In most cases, we can die because of the heat." Dozens of villagers stood on lower ground to watch huge plumes of smoke and ash clouds form. Many farmers feared for their livelihoods, in the wake of a potential evacuation. On Wednesday, Mount Merapi exploded with force three times as powerful as last week's devastating blast. After more than a week of continual eruptions, and warnings that pressure inside Merapi may still be building, the province warned on Wednesday it was running out of money to help more than 70-thousand people forced from their homes. Mount Merapi, which means "Fire Mountain," has erupted many times in the last century, often with deadly results. On Thursday, hospital officials said the death toll had climbed by two to 40. A spokesman at a main hospital dealing with victims said the deaths were not linked to the two powerful eruptions on Wednesday and early Thursday. Djarot Nugroho, the head of Central Java's disaster management agency, said money to buy instant noodles, clean water, medicine and other supplies would run out within five days unless the Indonesian government declares a national disaster, bringing in much-needed federal funds. There have been more than a dozen strong eruptions at Merapi in the last week - including another one earlier on Wednesday - and thousands of volcanic tremors and ash bursts. The danger zone was widened from six miles to nine miles (10 to 15 kilometres) from the peak because of the heightened threat. Indonesia, a vast archipelago of 235 (m) million people, is prone to earthquakes and volcanoes because it sits along the Pacific "Ring of Fire," a horseshoe-shaped string of faults that lines the Pacific. All AP Television video will be delivered in 16:9 from 10th November 2010. For more information, please email: widescreenap.org Clients are reminded: (i) to check the terms of their licence agreements for use of content outside news programming and that further advice and assistance can be obtained from the AP Archive on: Tel +44 (0) 20 7482 7482 Email: infoaparchive.com (ii) they should check with the applicable collecting society in their Territory regarding the clearance of any sound recording or performance included within the AP Television News service (iii) they have editorial responsibility for the use of all and any content included within the AP Television News service and for libel, privacy, compliance and third party rights applicable to their Territory. APTN APEX 11-04-10 0546EDT
PA-0819 Digibeta
Oklahoma: Heartland USA
DN-LB-550 Beta SP
Universal Newsreel
Indonesia Volcano 2
AP-APTN-0930: Indonesia Volcano 2 Saturday, 30 October 2010 STORY:Indonesia Volcano 2- REPLAY Ash from eruption affects life in nearest city LENGTH: 03:02 FIRST RUN: 0830 RESTRICTIONS: AP Clients Only TYPE: Indonesian/Nat SOURCE: AP TELEVISION STORY NUMBER: 663192 DATELINE: Various - 30 Oct 2010 LENGTH: 03:02 AP TELEVISION - AP CLIENTS ONLY SHOTLIST (FIRST RUN 0430 NEWS UPDATE - 30 OCTOBER 2010) Cangkringan Village, 30 October 2010 1. Various of Mount Merapi volcano Yogyakarta City, 30 October 2010 2. Various of traffic on ash-covered road 3. Exterior of school 4. Mid of teachers 5. Mid of pupils 6. Wide of pupils and teachers 7. SOUNDBITE (Indonesian) T. H. Wartini, Teacher: "We have given them (the pupils) a holiday today because the classrooms are messy because of the heavy fall of ash from the volcanic eruption last night." 8. Mid of pupils covering their faces from the ash 9. Various of people hosing down road to prevent dust from rising into air (FIRST RUN 2330 AMERICAS PRIME NEWS - 30 OCTOBER 2010) ++NIGHT SHOTS++ Pakem, 30 October 2010 10. Police vehicle driving through and officers giving instructions to residents to stay calm via loudspeaker 11. Various of cars and motorcycles driving through ash 12. Various of displaced people being helped out of truck 13. Man with gas mask carrying sick person 14. Various of displaced people in refugee centre 15. SOUNDBITE (Indonesian) Rustiyah, displaced person: (last name unknown) "I am here because of the ash out there and the thick sand rains that have occurred." 16. Mid of man with motorcycle helmet covered in ash 17. Wide of queue of motorcyclists at petrol station STORYLINE A volcano that has claimed 36 lives in recent days erupted again early on Saturday, temporarily forced an airport to close and the military to start forced evacuations. Plumes of heavy gray ash poured from the crater's mouth as rocks and debris cascaded down its slopes. Some villagers refused to leave their homes along the mountainside's fertile slopes, saying they wanted to check on their livestock and protect their homes, and the military was called in to help. A 35-year-old woman died during a chaotic evacuation, bringing the death toll since the first big blast on Tuesday to 36, the Indonesian Red Cross said. Saturday's powerful 21-minute eruption briefly forced the closure of the airport in the nearby city of Yogyakarta, 12 miles (20 kilometres) south of the volcano. At least one school was also closed due to the quantity of ash which has fallen on the city, according to teacher T.H. Wartini. At least 47-thousand people who live around Mount Merapi are staying in government camps or with friends and relatives, the National Disaster Management Agency said. Officials earlier said the volcano's activity appeared to be easing pressure behind a lava dome that has formed in the crater, but Subandrio, who heads the nearby volcanology centre, warned on Saturday the worst may be yet to come. Magna forming in the crater appeared to be thickening and high-pressure gas was building up behind it, he said. The latest rumblings of Merapi come as rescuers cope with a rising death toll from a tsunami in another part of the sprawling archipelago nation. The catastrophes struck within 24 hours in different parts of the seismically active country, severely testing Indonesia's emergency response network. There are more than 129 active volcanoes to watch in Indonesia, which is spread across 17,500 islands and is prone to eruptions and earthquakes because of its location within the so-called "Ring of Fire" - a series of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and Southeast Asia. The most recent was Mount Sinabung in North Sumatra province. It had been dormant for four centuries before springing to life in August but has since quieted and refugees from its slopes have returned home. All AP Television video will be delivered in 16:9 from 10th November 2010. For more information, please email: widescreenap.org Clients are reminded: (i) to check the terms of their licence agreements for use of content outside news programming and that further advice and assistance can be obtained from the AP Archive on: Tel +44 (0) 20 7482 7482 Email: infoaparchive.com (ii) they should check with the applicable collecting society in their Territory regarding the clearance of any sound recording or performance included within the AP Television News service (iii) they have editorial responsibility for the use of all and any content included within the AP Television News service and for libel, privacy, compliance and third party rights applicable to their Territory. APTN APEX 10-30-10 0546EDT
CHINA: CHINA'S ACHIEVEMENTS
TAPE_NUMBER: EF99/1075 IN_TIME: 07:30:19 - 09:27:07 LENGTH: 02:52 SOURCES: APTN/CCTV RESTRICTIONS: CCTV = No Access China/Internet FEED: VARIOUS (THE ABOVE TIME-CODE IS TIME-OF-DAY) SCRIPT: Mandarin/Nat Over three decades ago and in a flash of blinding light and a roar of sound China reached a defining moment in its development that captured the worlds attention. On the 1st of October Beijing will celebrate its modernization and remember the many achievements which have driven the nation's progress over the past 50 years, since the founding of the People's Republic in 1949. The early 1960s saw China's entry into an elite club of superpowers capable of launching long-range missiles and building weapons of mass destruction. China's first atomic bomb test, in a remote area of the Gobi Desert, helped to inspire a generation of young Chinese. Among them was film director Chen Guo Xing who tried to recapture on screen the emotion of those glory days of scientific discovery. Director Chen is now crafting a message to send to Chinese movie goers to show that the old values of sacrifice for the country and devotion to the cause are the true mothers of invention. SOUNDBITE: (Mandarin) "So I want to show through my movie the great revolutionary spirit and tell today's audience that only through our father's sacrifice and devotion to our cause in peacetime can we have today's achievements and the integrity of our land and the dignity of our nation." SUPER CAPTION: Film director Chen Guo Xing Chen's film "Return to the Gobi" takes a hard look at the people responsible for one of China's greatest achievements, which was the making of the atomic bomb and the struggles and joys they experienced in its creation. The film hopes to revive the powerful sense of pride felt by director Chen and his generation. SOUNDBITE: (Mandarin) "People of our generation have fresh memories of the successful launch of nuclear weapons in the 1960s. All that time we were still in primary school and we participated in many celebration activities and we consider that period of time as one of our proudest moments in history." SUPER CAPTION: Film director Chen Guo Xing China's proudest moments are being celebrated again this week at a grand exhibition that highlights the nation's achievements over the past 50 years to commemorate the founding of the People's Republic in 1949. Thousands of people have gathering each day at the Beijing Exhibition Hall to hear the sounds of success, admire the icons of economic growth and watch the innovations which have helped propelled China to the height of a world power. Examples of China's military might are given prominent display at the exhibition as the government hopes to stir national pride in its ability to defend the nation against foreign aggression which has recurred throughout recent Chinese history. But the message on nuclear power in modern China focuses on peaceful use rather than destructive force. SOUNDBITE: (English) "I think the big message that they want to send is that here is China's 50th anniversary since the founding of the country in 1949 and they want to send the message to everybody that 'it's worked.' Since the founding until today, despite the turmoil, despite the disruption, political, economic difficulties they have gone through, the country has now come into its own on the threshold of a new millennium." SUPER CAPTION: Business consultant Laurence Brahm China's financial capital of Shanghai, rendered here as a model in sparkling crystal, reflects the nation's push for prosperity and a policy to extend the modernization drive and dreams of development into the 21st century. SHOTLIST: Beijing, China 21 September 1999 XFA CCTV - File 1963 1. Various black and white shots of first rocket launch CCTV - File 16 October 1964 2. Various shots of first atomic bomb explosion mushroom cloud Beijing film studio pictures - March-May 1999 (restrictions ????) 3. Wide shot of Chinese director Chen Guo Xing walking on sand dune in Gobi desert 4. Mid shot of director Chen sitting and listening to actor explaining scene APTN September 1999 5. SOUNDBITE: (Mandarin) Chen Guo Xing, Film director Beijing film studio pictures - March-May 1999 6. Wide shot of actors walking up sand dune while camera team films 7. Medium shot of group of actors cheering at the successful explosion of the atomic bomb APTN September 1999 8. SOUNDBITE: (Mandarin) Chen Guo Xing, Film director 9. Wide exterior shot of the Beijing exhibition hall with balloons, banners 10. Close shot of red sign with number 50 and banner in Chinese saying "glorious history" 11. Wide interior shot of exhibition hall 12. Close shot of mechanical hands playing electric piano 13. Medium shot of robot playing piano while woman explains the machine to onlookers 14. Medium shot of jet engine with group of people looking 15. Close shot of man's face looking 16. Medium shot of two motorcycles revolving on display 17. Medium shot of group of people staring at exhibit with smoke rising 18. Medium shot of rocket rising with smoke coming from exhaust 19. Wide shot of people standing under model of fighter jet 20. Medium shot of fighter jet with bombs and rockets attached to wings 21. Medium tilt shot of woman explaining details of nuclear power plant 22. SOUNDBITE: (English) Laurence Brahm, Business Consultant 23. Medium pan shot of scale model of shanghai fashioned in crystal 24. Wide shot of Beijing exhibit with video screen and people walking in the foreground?
SECRETARY GATES REMARKS AT EISENHOWER LIBRARY
DVIDS: Secretary of Defense Robert Gates remarks at the Dwight Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum on the 65th anniversary of the allied victory in Europe in Abilene, Kansas RS27 / 79 SLUGGED: 1330 4X3 DVIDS GATES 79 DISC # 668 AR: 4X3 **** FED TO NY ON RS 5114 **** 14:07:41 REP MORAN: Welcome to the Eisenhower library . 14:08:07 an honor for me to be here with you to celebrate that victory in Europe - enlighten colleagues in Washington about the wonderful Kansas . our way of life in KS is worth preserving . 14:09:11 gates made his career in public service 14:11:13 gates walks to podium 14:11:20 GATES: thank you. Thank you, Congressman Moran, for that kind introduction. And thanks to the Eisenhower Library for the honor of being your speaker on this historic occasion - the 65th anniversary of the allied victory in Europe. I know there are a number of veterans from World War II with us. We are all grateful for what you achieved and sacrificed to make it possible for us to gather as free people in comfort and security today. 14:12:04 I'm pleased to be here for a number of reasons. First, it's always a treat to be someplace other than Washington, D.C. - the only place in the world you can see a prominent person walking down lover's lane holding his own hand. 14:12:22 Second, it's even better to return to my home state of Kansas - a place of little pretense and ample common sense. 14:12:28 And, above all, I am honored and humbled to be at this wonderful institution on this occasion, and to be associated in even a small way with the legacy of Dwight D. Eisenhower. 14:12:39 I should note that this is actually my second visit to the Eisenhower Library and Museum. My first was with my sixth-grade class from Wichita 54 years ago. 14:12:49 With just under four-and-half decades in government, academia, and the corporate sector, I consider myself a person of few illusions and not all that many unalloyed heroes. General Eisenhower - whose portrait hangs behind my desk at the Pentagon, and whose life has been a source of wisdom and inspiration - is one of those heroes. Another is General George C. Marshall, his "Partner in Command" whose portrait fittingly hangs right next to Ike's. 14:13:21 Eisenhower was a low-maintenance leader of simple tastes, modest demands, and small entourages - in stark contrast to what often happens at the upper levels of power in Washington and in other elite settings. 14:13:35 A newspaper article from December 1944 described a visit by Eisenhower to the front lines in the European Theater of Operations. The reporter noted that "there is no fanfare, no screaming motorcycle escorts, no fluttering banners" - only a convoy that consisted of three cars: one for Ike and his sole British aide, one for the press, and one spare. After arriving, Eisenhower set up his modest trailer right in the middle of what the reporter described as "one of the biggest and sloppiest mud puddles in creation," despite the presence of an elegant (and abandoned) chateau nearby. 14:14:14 I should note that even the bureaucratically-wise General Eisenhower was flummoxed by the Pentagon, now referred to as the "Puzzle Palace." 14:14:24 Soon after the war and returning to Washington, Ike made the mistake of trying to find his office by himself, and got very lost. He later wrote: "One had to give the building his grudging admiration; it had apparently been designed to confuse any enemy who might infiltrate it." 14:14:43 Eisenhower was not alone in that respect. Newsman David Brinkley used to tell a story of the early days at the Pentagon. A woman told a Pentagon guard she was in labor and needed help in quickly getting to a hospital. The guard said, "Madam, you should not have come in here in that condition." She answered, "I wasn't in this condition when I came in here." 14:15:08 The occasion that brings us together this afternoon is, of course, the 65th anniversary of the allied victory in Europe - an achievement that would not have been possible without Ike's strategic vision, diplomatic savvy, and remarkable skill at managing the personalities of his top generals. 14:15:26 As one historian put it, Eisenhower had to deal with as "fractious and dysfunctional a group of egomaniacs as any war had ever seen." Arguably Ike's greatest achievement was keeping the allied high command focused on killing the Nazis as opposed to each other. 14:15:45 But today I'm not going to focus my remarks on what General Eisenhower did to win that war. Instead, I'd like to discuss the approach he took, and especially the choices he made, to secure what historian John Lewis Gaddis called "The Long Peace" that followed. 14:16:03 Choices that played a major role in keeping America safe, prosperous, and free for nearly six decades. Choices that, as I will explain, can inform greatly the dilemmas we face today in providing for - and paying for - our national defense. 14:16:22 Six months ago, President Obama addressed the nation from West Point, where he laid out the case for a new strategy to achieve America's objectives in Afghanistan and Pakistan. 14:16:36 TRAIN HORN 14:16:42 I'm accustomed to this. The union pacific runs right through Texas A&M 14:16:54 Quoting Eisenhower in [QUOTE] "the light of a broader consideration: the need to maintain balance in and among national programs." 14:17:10 This excerpt was panned in certain quarters for being insufficiently rousing in the Churchillian sense. But I believe Eisenhower would have approved, and not just because the words were lifted from his presidential farewell address. Indeed, seeking and maintaining balance - TRAIN HORN 14:17:26 and the choices doing so entailed - infused Eisenhower's approach to national security, and to statecraft writ large. 14:17:37 Faced with the pre-eminent security threat of his time, the Soviet Union, Ike was as strong a Cold Warrior as they come. He had no illusions about the nature of the Soviet adversary, which he once called "Global in scope . ruthless in purpose, and insidious in method." 14:17:57 In his famous farewell address he warned: "Our arms must be mighty, ready for resistant action, so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction." 14:18:08 Yet, during his presidency, Eisenhower resisted pressure to intervene militarily in Vietnam and in the Middle East. This restraint wasn't just a true soldier's hatred of war, and all of its attendant costs and horrors. It came in no small part from an understanding that even a superpower such as the United States - then near the zenith of its strength and prosperity relative to the rest of the world - did not have unlimited political, economic and military resources. 14:18:36 Expending them in one area - say a protracted war in the developing world - would sap the strength available to do anything else. 14:18:45 Furthermore, Eisenhower strongly believed that the United States - indeed, any nation - could only be as militarily strong as it was economically dynamic and fiscally sound. 14:18:57 He lamented the cost of a large standing defense establishment maintained at a high level of readiness. As he put it so memorably at the end of his presidency: "This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience.We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications." 14:19:24 Eisenhower was wary of seeing his beloved republic turn into a muscle-bound, garrison state - militarily strong, but economically stagnant and strategically insolvent. 14:19:37 He once warned that "we must not destroy from within what we are trying to defend from without." This fueled his passionate belief that the U.S. should spend as much as necessary on national defense - and not one penny more. 14:19:53 And with his peerless credentials and standing, he was uniquely positioned to ask hard questions, make tough choices, and set firm limits. 14:20:03 Thanks to the archives of this library, we have first-hand documentary insight into how probing (and ruthless) this five-star general could be when it came to forcing the military establishment to justify its programs and priorities. 14:20:18 Consider an account of just one White House meeting in March 1956. Eisenhower sat down with his top defense advisors to discuss the Pentagon budget. The meeting notes show Eisenhower becoming exasperated that [QUOTE] "no one ever comes up to him and says 'let's get rid of something.'" He then observed that it took the Army 50 years to get rid of horses. 14:20:40 Ike questioned why the new Navy missiles cost so much more than the weapons they replaced and queried why the Army should have a 1500-mile ballistic missile program, since, in his words, "the Army does not have the equipment to see where they are hitting." 14:20:55 Eisenhower told his senior defense team that he wanted the Pentagon cut down to a [QUOTE] "Spartan basis," lamenting that "people he had known all his life were asking for more and more." He went on to say: "I say the patriot today is the fellow who can do the job with less money." 14:21:15 Time and again, whenever Eisenhower was asked to fund something his response usually took the form of a question: where is the money going to come from, and what will the military cut in its place? 14:21:26 The other question was priorities. In a meeting with defense officials earlier in his presidency, Eisenhower said he was troubled by the tendency to "pile program on program" to meet every possible contingency. 14:21:39 Looking back from today's vantage point, what I find so compelling and instructive was the simple fact that when it came to defense matters, under Eisenhower real choices were made, priorities set, and limits enforced. 14:21:55 This became increasingly rare in the decades that followed, despite the best efforts of some of my predecessors and other attempts at reform over the years. 14:22:05 The attacks of September 11th, 2001, opened a gusher of defense spending that nearly doubled the base budget over the last decade, not counting supplemental appropriations for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. 14:22:19 Which brings us to the situation we face and the choices we have today - as a defense department and as a country. 14:22:28 Given America's difficult economic circumstances and parlous fiscal condition, military spending on things large and small can and should expect closer, harsher scrutiny. 14:22:41 The gusher has been turned off, and will stay off for a good period of time. 14:22:46 On one level it's a simple matter of math. The fact that we are a nation at war and facing an uncertain world, I believe, calls for sustaining the current military force structure - Army brigades, Marine regiments, Air Force wings, Navy ships. 14:23:01 This typically requires regular real growth in the defense budget ranging from two and three percent above inflation. In this year's budget request, the Defense Department asked for, and I hope will receive, just under two percent - roughly that level of growth. 14:23:16 But, realistically, it is highly unlikely that we will achieve the real growth rates necessary to sustain the current force structure. 14:23:23 Some argue that the answer is to simply press harder for a bigger overall budget. 14:23:29 They point out that defense spending today as a function of gross domestic product - roughly four and a half percent - is relatively small in historical terms at a time of war - just over half of the average during Eisenhower's administration. 14:23:44 They would be right, and I don't hesitate to make that point during my trips to Capitol Hill during budget season. 14:23:51 But today we face a very different set of American economic and fiscal realities. 14:23:56 To be sure, changing the way we operate and achieving substantial savings will mean overcoming steep institutional and political institutions and challenges - many lying outside the five walls of the Pentagon. 14:24:14 For example, in this year's budget submission the Department has asked to end funding for an unnecessary alternative engine for the new Joint Strike Fighter and for more C-17 cargo planes. 14:24:22 Study on top of study has shown that an extra fighter engine achieves marginal potential savings but heavy upfront costs - about $3 billion. Multiple studies also show that the military has ample air-lift capacity to meet all current and feasible future needs. 14:24:40 The leadership of the Air Force is clear: they do not need and cannot afford more C-17s. 14:24:47 Correspondingly, the Air Force, Marine Corps, and Navy do not want the second F-35 engine. 14:24:54 Yet, even as we speak, a battle is underway to keep the Congress from putting both of these programs back in the budget - at an unnecessary potential cost to the taxpayers of billions of dollars over the next few years. 14:25:06 I have strongly recommended a presidential veto if either program is included in next year's defense budget legislation. 14:25:17 Consider another example. Leaving aside the sacred obligation we have to America's wounded warriors, health-care costs are eating the Defense Department alive, rising from $19 billion a decade ago to $50 billion - roughly the entire foreign affairs and assistance budget of the State Department. 14:25:37 The premiums for TRICARE, the military health insurance program, have not risen since the program was founded more than a decade ago. 14:25:48 Many working age military retirees - who are earning full-time salaries on top of their full military pensions - are opting for TRICARE even though they could get health coverage through their employer, with the taxpayer picking up most of the tab. 14:26:08 In recent years the Department has attempted modest increases in premiums and co-pays to help bring costs under control, but has been met with a furious response from the Congress and veterans groups. 14:26:18 The proposals routinely die an ignominious death on Capitol Hill. 14:26:23 The resistance to dealing with TRICARE stems from an admirable sentiment: to take good care of our troops, their families, and veterans - especially those who have sacrificed and suffered on the battlefield. This same sentiment motivates the congress routinely to add an extra half percent to the pay raise that the Department requests every year. Furthermore, the all-volunteer force, which has been a brilliant success in terms of performance, is a group that is older, more likely to have spouses and children, and thus far costlier to recruit, retain, house, and care for than the Eisenhower-era military that relied on the draft of young single men to fill out its ranks. 14:27:04 So those are the political and demographic realities we face. To a certain extent they limit what can be saved and where. 14:27:15 But as a matter of principle and political reality, the Department of Defense cannot go to the American people's elected representatives and ask for increases each year unless we have done everything possible to make every dollar count. 14:27:27 Unless there is real reform in the way this department does its business and spends taxpayer dollars. 14:27:36 For the better part of two years I have focused on the Pentagon's major weapons programs - to make sure we are buying the right things in the right quantities. 14:27:45 Last year, the Department made more than 30 tough choices in this area, cancelling or curtailing major weapons systems that were either performing poorly or excess to real world needs - about $330 billion dollars worth as measured over the life of the terminated programs. 14:28:03 We also began to overhaul the Pentagon's processes for acquisitions and contracting. 14:28:10 Earlier this week at the Navy League, I observed that fiscal realities will preclude the Navy from reaching its goal of 313 ships if each ship is over budget and costs billions of dollars. 14:28:25 Without exercising real diligence, if nature takes its course, major weapons programs will devolve into pursuing the limits of what technology will bear without regard to cost or what a real world enemy can do - 14:28:36 a process that over the past two decades has led to $20 million howitzers, $2 billion bombers, and 3 to 6 billion dollar destroyers. And when costs soar, the number of ships and planes the military can buy drops accordingly. For example, the Navy wanted 32 of the next generation destroyer - the DDG-1000; because of skyrocketing costs, we will build three. The Air Force wanted 132 B-2 bombers; at $2 billion each, we built 20. 14:29:13 This is unsustainable. 14:29:16 The changes we have made in the procurement arena represent an important start. But only a start. More is needed - much more. 14:29:26 The Defense Department must take a hard look at every aspect of how it is organized, staffed, and operated - indeed, every aspect of how it does business. 14:29:36 In each instance we must ask: First, is this respectful of the American taxpayer at a time of economic and fiscal duress? 14:29:43 And second, is this activity or arrangement the best use of limited dollars, given the pressing needs to take care of our people, win the wars we are in, and invest in the capabilities necessary to deal with the most likely and lethal future threats? 14:30:01 As a starting point, no real progress toward savings will be possible without reforming our budgeting practices and assumptions. Too often budgets are divied up and doled out every year as a straight line projection of what was spent the year before. Very rarely is the activity funded in these areas ever fundamentally re-examined - either in terms of quantity, type, or whether it should be conducted at all. That needs to change. 14:30:26 Consider the Department's spending on operations and maintenance, a broad category that encompasses about $200 billion worth of the day-to-day activities of the military - from flight training to mowing the grass. Over the last decade, spending in this area - not counting expenses directly related to the wars - has about doubled, with large increases in administrative and infrastructure support. At the same time, the department's spending on contract services - excluding the Iraq and Afghanistan theaters - has grown by some $23 billion. The one area of real decline in overhead was in the area where we actually needed it: full-time contracting professionals, whose numbers plunged from 26,000 to about 9,000. We ended up with contractors supervising other contractors - with predictable results. 14:31:19 Another category ripe for scrutiny should be overhead - all the activity and bureaucracy that supports the military mission. According to an estimate by the Defense Business Board, overhead, broadly defined, makes up roughly 40 percent of the Department's budget. During the 1990s, the military saw deep cuts in overall force structure - the Army by nearly 40 percent. But the reduction in flag officers - generals and admirals - was about half that. The Department's management layers - civilian and military - and numbers of senior executives outside the services grew during that same period. 14:31:58 Almost a decade ago, Secretary Rumsfeld lamented that there were 17 levels of staff between him and a line officer. The Defense Business Board recently estimated that in some cases the gap between me and an action officer may be as high as 30 layers. 14:32:18 The private sector has flattened and streamlined the middle and upper echelons of its organization charts, yet the Defense Department continues to maintain a top-heavy hierarchy that more reflects 20th Century headquarters superstructure than 21st Century realities. Two decades after the end of the Cold War led to steep cuts in U.S. forces in Europe, our military still has more than 40 generals, admirals, or civilian equivalents based on the continent. Yet we scold our allies over the bloat in NATO headquarters. Consider that a request for a dog-handling team in Afghanistan - or for any other unit - has to go through no fewer than five four-star headquarters in order to be processed, validated, and eventually dealt with. This during an era when more and more responsibility - including decisions with strategic consequences - is being exercised by young captains and colonels on the battlefield. 14:33:15 A telling example of how difficult it is to make even modest adjustments. The Department commissioned a study a few years ago to assess the flag-officer requirements of the services. The study identified 37 positions - out of more than 1,300 active and reserve billets - that could be reasonably converted to a lower rank. None were downgraded. Going forward, some questions to be considered should be: How many of our headquarters and secretariats are primarily in the business of reporting to or supervising other headquarters and secretariats, as opposed to overseeing activity related to real-world needs and missions? How many executive or flag-officer billets could be converted to a lower grade, with a cascading effect downward - where two-star deputies become one-star deputies, assistant secretaries become deputy assistant secretaries - to create a flatter, more effective, and less costly organization? How many commands or organizations are conducting repetitive or overlapping functions - whether in logistics, intelligence, policy, or anything else - and could be combined or eliminated altogether? In considering these questions, we have to be mindful of the iron law of bureaucracies - that the definition of essential work expands proportionally with the seniority of the person in charge and the quantity of time and staff available - with 50-page power point briefings being one result. Finally, this Department's approach to requirements must change. Before making claims of requirements not being met or alleged "gaps" - in ships, tactical fighters, personnel, or anything else - we need to evaluate the criteria upon which requirements are based and the wider real world context. For example, should we really be up in arms over a temporary projected shortfall of about 100 Navy and Marine strike fighters relative to the number of carrier wings, when America's military possesses more than 3,200 tactical combat aircraft of all kinds? Does the number of warships we have and are building really put America at risk when the U.S. battle fleet is larger than the next 13 navies combined, 11 of which belong to allies and partners? Is it a dire threat that by 2020 the United States will have only 20 times more advanced stealth fighters than China? 14:35:42 These are the kinds of questions Eisenhower asked as commander-in-chief. They are the kinds of questions I believe he would ask today. And they are the kinds of question that we must all - civilian, military, in government and out - be willing to ask and answer in order to have a balanced military portfolio geared to real world requirements and a defense budget that is fiscally and politically sustainable over time. Therefore, as the Defense Department begins the process of preparing next's years Fiscal Year 2012 budget request, I am directing the military services, the joint staff, the major functional and regional commands, and the civilian side of the Pentagon to take a hard, unsparing look at how they operate - in substance and style alike. The goal is to cut our overhead costs and to transfer those savings to force structure and modernization within the programmed budget. 14:36:35 In other words, to convert sufficient "tail" to "tooth" to provide the equivalent of the roughly two to three percent real growth - resources needed to sustain America's combat power at a time of war and make investments to prepare for an uncertain future. 14:36:50 Simply taking a few percent off the top of everything on a one-time basis will not do. These savings must stem from root-and-branch changes that can be sustained and added to over time. 14:37:00 What is required going forward is not more study. Nor do we need more legislation. It is not a great mystery what needs to change. What it takes is the political will and willingness, as Eisenhower possessed, to make hard choices - choices that will displease powerful people both inside the Pentagon and out. 14:37:25 I say this fully aware of the fact that I am not the first in this office to make this case and or call for this effort. Indeed, one of my predecessors said the following: "A person employed in a redundant task is one who could be countering terrorism or nuclear proliferation. Every dollar squandered on waste is one denied to the warfighter." That was Secretary Rumsfeld on September 10th, 2001. 14:37:49 Some progress has been made since then, as well as since the days of $800 hammers. But the proverbial wall has been brought to our back. What might have been considered a noble or worthy endeavor in the past is now a task that can no longer be denied or postponed. It is a task, in the final analysis, to defend the security, prosperity, and freedom of the American people in this complex and dangerous new century. 14:38:18 It is a calling to uphold the spirit of sacrifice of the men whose service and triumphs we honor. And it is a mission worthy of the son of Kansas who led our forces to victory 65 years ago, and whose legacy continues to sustain and protect us today. 14:38:38 END and sits on stage
SECRETARY GATES REMARKS AT EISENHOWER LIBRARY P3
Secretary of Defense Robert Gates remarks at the Dwight Eisenhower Presidential Library and Museum on the 65th anniversary of the allied victory in Europe in Abilene, Kansas 14:07:41 REP MORAN: Welcome to the Eisenhower library . 14:08:07 an honor for me to be here with you to celebrate that victory in Europe - enlighten colleagues in Washington about the wonderful Kansas . our way of life in KS is worth preserving . 14:09:11 gates made his career in public service 14:11:13 gates walks to podium 14:11:20 GATES: thank you. Thank you, Congressman Moran, for that kind introduction. And thanks to the Eisenhower Library for the honor of being your speaker on this historic occasion - the 65th anniversary of the allied victory in Europe. I know there are a number of veterans from World War II with us. We are all grateful for what you achieved and sacrificed to make it possible for us to gather as free people in comfort and security today. 14:12:04 I'm pleased to be here for a number of reasons. First, it's always a treat to be someplace other than Washington, D.C. - the only place in the world you can see a prominent person walking down lover's lane holding his own hand. 14:12:22 Second, it's even better to return to my home state of Kansas - a place of little pretense and ample common sense. 14:12:28 And, above all, I am honored and humbled to be at this wonderful institution on this occasion, and to be associated in even a small way with the legacy of Dwight D. Eisenhower. 14:12:39 I should note that this is actually my second visit to the Eisenhower Library and Museum. My first was with my sixth-grade class from Wichita 54 years ago. 14:12:49 With just under four-and-half decades in government, academia, and the corporate sector, I consider myself a person of few illusions and not all that many unalloyed heroes. General Eisenhower - whose portrait hangs behind my desk at the Pentagon, and whose life has been a source of wisdom and inspiration - is one of those heroes. Another is General George C. Marshall, his "Partner in Command" whose portrait fittingly hangs right next to Ike's. 14:13:21 Eisenhower was a low-maintenance leader of simple tastes, modest demands, and small entourages - in stark contrast to what often happens at the upper levels of power in Washington and in other elite settings. 14:13:35 A newspaper article from December 1944 described a visit by Eisenhower to the front lines in the European Theater of Operations. The reporter noted that "there is no fanfare, no screaming motorcycle escorts, no fluttering banners" - only a convoy that consisted of three cars: one for Ike and his sole British aide, one for the press, and one spare. After arriving, Eisenhower set up his modest trailer right in the middle of what the reporter described as "one of the biggest and sloppiest mud puddles in creation," despite the presence of an elegant (and abandoned) chateau nearby. 14:14:14 I should note that even the bureaucratically-wise General Eisenhower was flummoxed by the Pentagon, now referred to as the "Puzzle Palace." 14:14:24 Soon after the war and returning to Washington, Ike made the mistake of trying to find his office by himself, and got very lost. He later wrote: "One had to give the building his grudging admiration; it had apparently been designed to confuse any enemy who might infiltrate it." 14:14:43 Eisenhower was not alone in that respect. Newsman David Brinkley used to tell a story of the early days at the Pentagon. A woman told a Pentagon guard she was in labor and needed help in quickly getting to a hospital. The guard said, "Madam, you should not have come in here in that condition." She answered, "I wasn't in this condition when I came in here." 14:15:08 The occasion that brings us together this afternoon is, of course, the 65th anniversary of the allied victory in Europe - an achievement that would not have been possible without Ike's strategic vision, diplomatic savvy, and remarkable skill at managing the personalities of his top generals. 14:15:26 As one historian put it, Eisenhower had to deal with as "fractious and dysfunctional a group of egomaniacs as any war had ever seen." Arguably Ike's greatest achievement was keeping the allied high command focused on killing the Nazis as opposed to each other. 14:15:45 But today I'm not going to focus my remarks on what General Eisenhower did to win that war. Instead, I'd like to discuss the approach he took, and especially the choices he made, to secure what historian John Lewis Gaddis called "The Long Peace" that followed. 14:16:03 Choices that played a major role in keeping America safe, prosperous, and free for nearly six decades. Choices that, as I will explain, can inform greatly the dilemmas we face today in providing for - and paying for - our national defense. 14:16:22 Six months ago, President Obama addressed the nation from West Point, where he laid out the case for a new strategy to achieve America's objectives in Afghanistan and Pakistan. 14:16:36 TRAIN HORN 14:16:42 I'm accustomed to this. The union pacific runs right through Texas A&M 14:16:54 Quoting Eisenhower in [QUOTE] "the light of a broader consideration: the need to maintain balance in and among national programs." 14:17:10 This excerpt was panned in certain quarters for being insufficiently rousing in the Churchillian sense. But I believe Eisenhower would have approved, and not just because the words were lifted from his presidential farewell address. Indeed, seeking and maintaining balance - TRAIN HORN 14:17:26 and the choices doing so entailed - infused Eisenhower's approach to national security, and to statecraft writ large. 14:17:37 Faced with the pre-eminent security threat of his time, the Soviet Union, Ike was as strong a Cold Warrior as they come. He had no illusions about the nature of the Soviet adversary, which he once called "Global in scope . ruthless in purpose, and insidious in method." 14:17:57 In his famous farewell address he warned: "Our arms must be mighty, ready for resistant action, so that no potential aggressor may be tempted to risk his own destruction." 14:18:08 Yet, during his presidency, Eisenhower resisted pressure to intervene militarily in Vietnam and in the Middle East. This restraint wasn't just a true soldier's hatred of war, and all of its attendant costs and horrors. It came in no small part from an understanding that even a superpower such as the United States - then near the zenith of its strength and prosperity relative to the rest of the world - did not have unlimited political, economic and military resources. 14:18:36 Expending them in one area - say a protracted war in the developing world - would sap the strength available to do anything else. 14:18:45 Furthermore, Eisenhower strongly believed that the United States - indeed, any nation - could only be as militarily strong as it was economically dynamic and fiscally sound. 14:18:57 He lamented the cost of a large standing defense establishment maintained at a high level of readiness. As he put it so memorably at the end of his presidency: "This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience.We recognize the imperative need for this development. Yet we must not fail to comprehend its grave implications." 14:19:24 Eisenhower was wary of seeing his beloved republic turn into a muscle-bound, garrison state - militarily strong, but economically stagnant and strategically insolvent. 14:19:37 He once warned that "we must not destroy from within what we are trying to defend from without." This fueled his passionate belief that the U.S. should spend as much as necessary on national defense - and not one penny more. 14:19:53 And with his peerless credentials and standing, he was uniquely positioned to ask hard questions, make tough choices, and set firm limits. 14:20:03 Thanks to the archives of this library, we have first-hand documentary insight into how probing (and ruthless) this five-star general could be when it came to forcing the military establishment to justify its programs and priorities. 14:20:18 Consider an account of just one White House meeting in March 1956. Eisenhower sat down with his top defense advisors to discuss the Pentagon budget. The meeting notes show Eisenhower becoming exasperated that [QUOTE] "no one ever comes up to him and says 'let's get rid of something.'" He then observed that it took the Army 50 years to get rid of horses. 14:20:40 Ike questioned why the new Navy missiles cost so much more than the weapons they replaced and queried why the Army should have a 1500-mile ballistic missile program, since, in his words, "the Army does not have the equipment to see where they are hitting." 14:20:55 Eisenhower told his senior defense team that he wanted the Pentagon cut down to a [QUOTE] "Spartan basis," lamenting that "people he had known all his life were asking for more and more." He went on to say: "I say the patriot today is the fellow who can do the job with less money." 14:21:15 Time and again, whenever Eisenhower was asked to fund something his response usually took the form of a question: where is the money going to come from, and what will the military cut in its place? 14:21:26 The other question was priorities. In a meeting with defense officials earlier in his presidency, Eisenhower said he was troubled by the tendency to "pile program on program" to meet every possible contingency. 14:21:39 Looking back from today's vantage point, what I find so compelling and instructive was the simple fact that when it came to defense matters, under Eisenhower real choices were made, priorities set, and limits enforced. 14:21:55 This became increasingly rare in the decades that followed, despite the best efforts of some of my predecessors and other attempts at reform over the years. 14:22:05 The attacks of September 11th, 2001, opened a gusher of defense spending that nearly doubled the base budget over the last decade, not counting supplemental appropriations for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. 14:22:19 Which brings us to the situation we face and the choices we have today - as a defense department and as a country. 14:22:28 Given America's difficult economic circumstances and parlous fiscal condition, military spending on things large and small can and should expect closer, harsher scrutiny. 14:22:41 The gusher has been turned off, and will stay off for a good period of time. 14:22:46 On one level it's a simple matter of math. The fact that we are a nation at war and facing an uncertain world, I believe, calls for sustaining the current military force structure - Army brigades, Marine regiments, Air Force wings, Navy ships. 14:23:01 This typically requires regular real growth in the defense budget ranging from two and three percent above inflation. In this year's budget request, the Defense Department asked for, and I hope will receive, just under two percent - roughly that level of growth. 14:23:16 But, realistically, it is highly unlikely that we will achieve the real growth rates necessary to sustain the current force structure. 14:23:23 Some argue that the answer is to simply press harder for a bigger overall budget. 14:23:29 They point out that defense spending today as a function of gross domestic product - roughly four and a half percent - is relatively small in historical terms at a time of war - just over half of the average during Eisenhower's administration. 14:23:44 They would be right, and I don't hesitate to make that point during my trips to Capitol Hill during budget season. 14:23:51 But today we face a very different set of American economic and fiscal realities. 14:23:56 To be sure, changing the way we operate and achieving substantial savings will mean overcoming steep institutional and political institutions and challenges - many lying outside the five walls of the Pentagon. 14:24:14 For example, in this year's budget submission the Department has asked to end funding for an unnecessary alternative engine for the new Joint Strike Fighter and for more C-17 cargo planes. 14:24:22 Study on top of study has shown that an extra fighter engine achieves marginal potential savings but heavy upfront costs - about $3 billion. Multiple studies also show that the military has ample air-lift capacity to meet all current and feasible future needs. 14:24:40 The leadership of the Air Force is clear: they do not need and cannot afford more C-17s. 14:24:47 Correspondingly, the Air Force, Marine Corps, and Navy do not want the second F-35 engine. 14:24:54 Yet, even as we speak, a battle is underway to keep the Congress from putting both of these programs back in the budget - at an unnecessary potential cost to the taxpayers of billions of dollars over the next few years. 14:25:06 I have strongly recommended a presidential veto if either program is included in next year's defense budget legislation. 14:25:17 Consider another example. Leaving aside the sacred obligation we have to America's wounded warriors, health-care costs are eating the Defense Department alive, rising from $19 billion a decade ago to $50 billion - roughly the entire foreign affairs and assistance budget of the State Department. 14:25:37 The premiums for TRICARE, the military health insurance program, have not risen since the program was founded more than a decade ago. 14:25:48 Many working age military retirees - who are earning full-time salaries on top of their full military pensions - are opting for TRICARE even though they could get health coverage through their employer, with the taxpayer picking up most of the tab. 14:26:08 In recent years the Department has attempted modest increases in premiums and co-pays to help bring costs under control, but has been met with a furious response from the Congress and veterans groups. 14:26:18 The proposals routinely die an ignominious death on Capitol Hill. 14:26:23 The resistance to dealing with TRICARE stems from an admirable sentiment: to take good care of our troops, their families, and veterans - especially those who have sacrificed and suffered on the battlefield. This same sentiment motivates the congress routinely to add an extra half percent to the pay raise that the Department requests every year. Furthermore, the all-volunteer force, which has been a brilliant success in terms of performance, is a group that is older, more likely to have spouses and children, and thus far costlier to recruit, retain, house, and care for than the Eisenhower-era military that relied on the draft of young single men to fill out its ranks. 14:27:04 So those are the political and demographic realities we face. To a certain extent they limit what can be saved and where. 14:27:15 But as a matter of principle and political reality, the Department of Defense cannot go to the American people's elected representatives and ask for increases each year unless we have done everything possible to make every dollar count. 14:27:27 Unless there is real reform in the way this department does its business and spends taxpayer dollars. 14:27:36 For the better part of two years I have focused on the Pentagon's major weapons programs - to make sure we are buying the right things in the right quantities. 14:27:45 Last year, the Department made more than 30 tough choices in this area, cancelling or curtailing major weapons systems that were either performing poorly or excess to real world needs - about $330 billion dollars worth as measured over the life of the terminated programs. 14:28:03 We also began to overhaul the Pentagon's processes for acquisitions and contracting. 14:28:10 Earlier this week at the Navy League, I observed that fiscal realities will preclude the Navy from reaching its goal of 313 ships if each ship is over budget and costs billions of dollars. 14:28:25 Without exercising real diligence, if nature takes its course, major weapons programs will devolve into pursuing the limits of what technology will bear without regard to cost or what a real world enemy can do - 14:28:36 a process that over the past two decades has led to $20 million howitzers, $2 billion bombers, and 3 to 6 billion dollar destroyers. And when costs soar, the number of ships and planes the military can buy drops accordingly. For example, the Navy wanted 32 of the next generation destroyer - the DDG-1000; because of skyrocketing costs, we will build three. The Air Force wanted 132 B-2 bombers; at $2 billion each, we built 20. 14:29:13 This is unsustainable. 14:29:16 The changes we have made in the procurement arena represent an important start. But only a start. More is needed - much more. 14:29:26 The Defense Department must take a hard look at every aspect of how it is organized, staffed, and operated - indeed, every aspect of how it does business. 14:29:36 In each instance we must ask: First, is this respectful of the American taxpayer at a time of economic and fiscal duress? 14:29:43 And second, is this activity or arrangement the best use of limited dollars, given the pressing needs to take care of our people, win the wars we are in, and invest in the capabilities necessary to deal with the most likely and lethal future threats? 14:30:01 As a starting point, no real progress toward savings will be possible without reforming our budgeting practices and assumptions. Too often budgets are divied up and doled out every year as a straight line projection of what was spent the year before. Very rarely is the activity funded in these areas ever fundamentally re-examined - either in terms of quantity, type, or whether it should be conducted at all. That needs to change. 14:30:26 Consider the Department's spending on operations and maintenance, a broad category that encompasses about $200 billion worth of the day-to-day activities of the military - from flight training to mowing the grass. Over the last decade, spending in this area - not counting expenses directly related to the wars - has about doubled, with large increases in administrative and infrastructure support. At the same time, the department's spending on contract services - excluding the Iraq and Afghanistan theaters - has grown by some $23 billion. The one area of real decline in overhead was in the area where we actually needed it: full-time contracting professionals, whose numbers plunged from 26,000 to about 9,000. We ended up with contractors supervising other contractors - with predictable results. 14:31:19 Another category ripe for scrutiny should be overhead - all the activity and bureaucracy that supports the military mission. According to an estimate by the Defense Business Board, overhead, broadly defined, makes up roughly 40 percent of the Department's budget. During the 1990s, the military saw deep cuts in overall force structure - the Army by nearly 40 percent. But the reduction in flag officers - generals and admirals - was about half that. The Department's management layers - civilian and military - and numbers of senior executives outside the services grew during that same period. 14:31:58 Almost a decade ago, Secretary Rumsfeld lamented that there were 17 levels of staff between him and a line officer. The Defense Business Board recently estimated that in some cases the gap between me and an action officer may be as high as 30 layers. 14:32:18 The private sector has flattened and streamlined the middle and upper echelons of its organization charts, yet the Defense Department continues to maintain a top-heavy hierarchy that more reflects 20th Century headquarters superstructure than 21st Century realities. Two decades after the end of the Cold War led to steep cuts in U.S. forces in Europe, our military still has more than 40 generals, admirals, or civilian equivalents based on the continent. Yet we scold our allies over the bloat in NATO headquarters. Consider that a request for a dog-handling team in Afghanistan - or for any other unit - has to go through no fewer than five four-star headquarters in order to be processed, validated, and eventually dealt with. This during an era when more and more responsibility - including decisions with strategic consequences - is being exercised by young captains and colonels on the battlefield. 14:33:15 A telling example of how difficult it is to make even modest adjustments. The Department commissioned a study a few years ago to assess the flag-officer requirements of the services. The study identified 37 positions - out of more than 1,300 active and reserve billets - that could be reasonably converted to a lower rank. None were downgraded. Going forward, some questions to be considered should be: How many of our headquarters and secretariats are primarily in the business of reporting to or supervising other headquarters and secretariats, as opposed to overseeing activity related to real-world needs and missions? How many executive or flag-officer billets could be converted to a lower grade, with a cascading effect downward - where two-star deputies become one-star deputies, assistant secretaries become deputy assistant secretaries - to create a flatter, more effective, and less costly organization? How many commands or organizations are conducting repetitive or overlapping functions - whether in logistics, intelligence, policy, or anything else - and could be combined or eliminated altogether? In considering these questions, we have to be mindful of the iron law of bureaucracies - that the definition of essential work expands proportionally with the seniority of the person in charge and the quantity of time and staff available - with 50-page power point briefings being one result. Finally, this Department's approach to requirements must change. Before making claims of requirements not being met or alleged "gaps" - in ships, tactical fighters, personnel, or anything else - we need to evaluate the criteria upon which requirements are based and the wider real world context. For example, should we really be up in arms over a temporary projected shortfall of about 100 Navy and Marine strike fighters relative to the number of carrier wings, when America's military possesses more than 3,200 tactical combat aircraft of all kinds? Does the number of warships we have and are building really put America at risk when the U.S. battle fleet is larger than the next 13 navies combined, 11 of which belong to allies and partners? Is it a dire threat that by 2020 the United States will have only 20 times more advanced stealth fighters than China? 14:35:42 These are the kinds of questions Eisenhower asked as commander-in-chief. They are the kinds of questions I believe he would ask today. And they are the kinds of question that we must all - civilian, military, in government and out - be willing to ask and answer in order to have a balanced military portfolio geared to real world requirements and a defense budget that is fiscally and politically sustainable over time. Therefore, as the Defense Department begins the process of preparing next's years Fiscal Year 2012 budget request, I am directing the military services, the joint staff, the major functional and regional commands, and the civilian side of the Pentagon to take a hard, unsparing look at how they operate - in substance and style alike. The goal is to cut our overhead costs and to transfer those savings to force structure and modernization within the programmed budget. 14:36:35 In other words, to convert sufficient "tail" to "tooth" to provide the equivalent of the roughly two to three percent real growth - resources needed to sustain America's combat power at a time of war and make investments to prepare for an uncertain future. 14:36:50 Simply taking a few percent off the top of everything on a one-time basis will not do. These savings must stem from root-and-branch changes that can be sustained and added to over time. 14:37:00 What is required going forward is not more study. Nor do we need more legislation. It is not a great mystery what needs to change. What it takes is the political will and willingness, as Eisenhower possessed, to make hard choices - choices that will displease powerful people both inside the Pentagon and out. 14:37:25 I say this fully aware of the fact that I am not the first in this office to make this case and or call for this effort. Indeed, one of my predecessors said the following: "A person employed in a redundant task is one who could be countering terrorism or nuclear proliferation. Every dollar squandered on waste is one denied to the warfighter." That was Secretary Rumsfeld on September 10th, 2001. 14:37:49 Some progress has been made since then, as well as since the days of $800 hammers. But the proverbial wall has been brought to our back. What might have been considered a noble or worthy endeavor in the past is now a task that can no longer be denied or postponed. It is a task, in the final analysis, to defend the security, prosperity, and freedom of the American people in this complex and dangerous new century. 14:38:18 It is a calling to uphold the spirit of sacrifice of the men whose service and triumphs we honor. And it is a mission worthy of the son of Kansas who led our forces to victory 65 years ago, and whose legacy continues to sustain and protect us today. 14:38:38 END and sits on stage
PRESIDENT GW BUSH SPEECH ON THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM STIX
PRESIDENT GW BUSH SPEECH ON THE GLOBAL WAR ON TERRORISM STIX. THIS IS THE THIRD OF A SERIES OF SPPEECHES PRESIDENT BUSH IS MAKING ON GLOBAL TERRORISM. 13:45:40 >> PLEASE BE SEATED. THANK YOU. 13:45:43 THANK YOU FOR THE WARM WELCOME. WELCOME TO THE WHITE HOUSE. 13:45:49 MR. VICE PRESIDENT, SECRETARY RICE, ATTORNEY GONZALES, 13:45:54 AMBASSADOR NEGROPONTE, AMBASSADOR HAYDEN, MEMBERS OF 13:45:57 THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS. FAMILIES WHO LOST A BUNDLE -- 13:46:01 LOVED ONES IN THE TERRORIST ATTACKS AGAINST OUR NATION, MY 13:46:04 FELLOW CITIZENS, WELCOME. ON THE MORNING OF 9/11, 2001, 13:46:11 OUR NATION AWOKE TO A NEED -- NIGHTMARE ATTACK. 13:46:15 19 MEN ARMED WITH BOX CUTTERS TO CONTROL OF AIRPLANES AND TURN 13:46:19 THEM INTO MISSILES. THEY USE THEM TO FILL NEARLY 13:46:24 3000 INNOCENT PEOPLE. -- KILLED NEARLY 3000 INNOCENT 13:46:28 PEOPLE. WE WATCH THE WORLD TRADE CENTER 13:46:30 TOWERS OF COLLAPSE. IT BECAME CLEAR THAT WE HAD 13:46:33 ENTERED A NEW WORLD, AND A DANGEROUS NEW WAR. 13:46:37 THE ATTACKS OF SEPTEMBER THE 11TH HORRIFY OUR NATION. 13:46:42 AMID THE GREAT CAME NEW FEAR IS AN URGENT QUESTIONS. 13:46:46 WHO HAD ATTACKED US? WHAT DID THEY WHAT? 13:46:50 WHAT ELSE WERE THEY PLANNING? AMERICANS SAW THE DESTRUCTION 13:46:56 THAT THE TERRORISTS HAD CAUSED IN NEW YORK AND WASHINGTON AND 13:46:59 PENNSYLVANIA AND THEY WONDERED IF THERE WERE OTHER TERRORIST 13:47:03 CELLS IN OUR MIDST, POISED TO STRIKE. 13:47:06 THEY WONDERED IF THERE WAS A SECOND WAVE OF TAX -- A TAX BILL 13:47:10 COMING. WITH THE TWIN TOWERS AND THE 13:47:13 PENTAGON STILL SMOLDERING OUR COUNTRY ON EDGE, AND A STREAM OF 13:47:17 INTELLIGENCE COMING IN ON POTENTIAL NEW ATTACKS MY 13:47:22 ADMINISTRATION BASED IMMEDIATE CHALLENGES. 13:47:25 WE HAD TO RESPOND TO THE ATTACK ON THE COUNTRY. 13:47:29 WE HAD TO WAGE AN UNPRECEDENTED WAR AGAINST AN ENEMY UNLIKE ANY 13:47:34 WE HAVE FOUGHT BEFORE. WE HAVE TO FIGHT THE TERRORIST 13:47:39 FIGHT -- HIDING IN AMERICA AND ACROSS THE WORLD. 13:47:41 BEFORE THEY WERE ABLE TO STRIKE OUR COUNTRY AGAIN. 13:47:46 IN THE EARLY DAYS AND WEEKS AFTER 9/11, I DIRECTED OUR 13:47:51 SENIOR NATIONAL SECURITY OFFICIALS TO DO EVERYTHING IN 13:47:53 THEIR POWER, WITHIN OUR LAWS TO PREVENT ANOTHER ATTACK. 13:48:00 NEARLY FIVE YEARS HAVE PASSED SINCE THOSE INITIAL DAYS OF 13:48:03 SHOCK AND SADNESS, AND WE ARE THANKFUL THAT THE TERRORISTS 13:48:08 HAVE NOT SUCCEEDED IN LAUNCHING ANOTHER ATTACK ON OUR SOIL. 13:48:12 THIS IS NOT FOR A LACK OF DESIRE OR DETERMINATION ON THE 13:48:17 PART OF THE ENEMY. AS THE RECENTLY FOILED PLOT IN 13:48:23 LONDON SHOWS, TERRORISTS ARE STILL ACTIVE. 13:48:26 AND THEY ARE STILL TRYING TO STRIKE AMERICA, AND THEY ARE 13:48:29 STILL TRYING TO KILL OUR PEOPLE. ONE REASON THAT TERRORISTS HAVE 13:48:35 NOT SUCCEEDED IS BECAUSE OF THE HARD WORK OF THOUSANDS OF 13:48:39 DEDICATED MEN AND WOMEN IN OUR GOVERNMENT. 13:48:41 WHO HAVE TOILED DAY AND NIGHT ALONG WITH OUR ALLIES TO STOP 13:48:45 THE ENEMY FROM CARRYING OUT THEIR PLANS. 13:48:48 AND WE ARE GRATEFUL FOR THESE HARD WORKING CITIZENS OF OUR 13:48:54 SPIRITS --. ANOTHER REASON IS BECAUSE OUR 13:48:59 GOVERNMENT HAS CHANGED OUR POLICIES. 13:49:01 AND GIVEN OUR MILITARY INTELLIGENCE AND LAW ENFORCEMENT 13:49:06 PERSONNEL, THE TOOLS THEY NEED TO FIGHT THIS ENEMY AND PROTECT 13:49:09 OUR PEOPLE AND PRESERVE OUR FREEDOM. 13:49:14 THE TERRORISTS WHO DECLARED WAR ON AMERICA REPRESENT NO NATION. 13:49:18 THEY DEFENDED NO TERRITORY, AND THEY WEAR NO UNIFORM. 13:49:23 THEY DO NOT MASS ARMIES ON BORDERS OR FLOTILLAS, WARSHIPS, 13:49:29 ON THE HIGH SEAS. THEY OPERATE IN THE SHADOWS OF 13:49:34 SOCIETY. THEY SEND SMALL TEAMS OF 13:49:36 OPERATIVES TO A INFILTRATES NATION'S. 13:49:40 THEY LIVED QUIETLY AMONG THEIR VICTIMS IN CONSPIRE IN SECRET 13:49:44 AND STRIKE WITHOUT WARNING. IN THIS NEW WAR, THE MOST 13:49:50 IMPORTANT SOURCE OF INFORMATION ON WHERE THE TERRORISTS ARE 13:49:53 HIDING, AND WHAT THEY ARE PLANNING IS THAT TERRORISTS 13:49:58 THEMSELVES. CAPTURED TERRORISTS HAVE UNIQUE 13:50:03 KNOWLEDGE OF HOW TERRORIST NETWORKS OPERATE. 13:50:08 THEY HAVE KNOWLEDGE OF WHERE THE OPERATIVES ARE DEPLOYED AND 13:50:12 KNOWLEDGE OF WHAT PLOTS ARE UNDER WAY. 13:50:17 THIS IS INTELLIGENCE THAT CANNOT BE FOUND ANY OTHER PLACE. 13:50:21 AND OUR SECURITY DEPENDS ON GETTING THIS KIND OF 13:50:25 INFORMATION. TO WIN THE WAR ON TERROR WE MUST 13:50:29 BE ABLE TO DETAIN, QUESTION, AND WHEN APPROPRIATELY, PROSECUTE 13:50:35 TERRORIST CAPTURED HERE IN AMERICA AND ON THE BATTLEFIELDS 13:50:37 AROUND THE WORLD. AFTER THE 9/11 ATTACKS, OUR 13:50:43 COALITION LAUNCHED OPERATIONS ACROSS THE WORLD TO REMOVE 13:50:47 TERRORISTS SAFE HAVENS AND CAPTURE OR KILL TERRORIST 13:50:49 OPERATIVES AND LEADERS. WORKING WITH OUR ALLIES WE HAVE 13:50:53 CAPTURED AND DETAINED THOUSANDS OF TERRORISTS AND ENEMY FIGHTERS 13:50:56 IN AFGHANISTAN, IN IRAQ, AND OTHER FRONT OF THIS WAR ON 13:50:59 TERROR. THESE ARE ANY COMBATANTS WHO ARE 13:51:07 WAGING WAR ON OUR NATION. WE HAVE A RIGHT UNDER THE LAWS 13:51:12 OF WAR, AND WE HAVE AN OBLIGATION TO THE AMERICAN 13:51:16 PEOPLE TO DETAIN THESE ENEMIES AND STOP THEM FROM REJOINING THE 13:51:22 BATTLE. MOST OF THE ENEMY COMBATANTS WE 13:51:27 HOUSE WERE CAPTURED AND AFGHANISTAN OR IRAQ, WHETHER -- 13:51:33 WERE QUESTIONED BY OUR MILITARY PERSONNEL. 13:51:34 MANY WERE RELEASED AFTER QUESTIONING AND TURNED OVER TO 13:51:37 LOCAL AUTHORITIES. IF WE DETERMINE THEY DO NOT READ 13:51:40 A CONTINUING THREAT AND NO LONGER HAVE SIGNIFICANT 13:51:46 INTELLIGENCE VALUE. OTHERS REMAIN IN AMERICAN 13:51:49 CUSTODY NEAR THE BATTLEFIELD. TO INSURE THEY DON'T RETURN TO 13:51:52 THE FIGHT. IN SOME CASES WE DETERMINE THAT 13:51:57 INDIVIDUALS WE HAVE CAPTURED POSE A SIGNIFICANT THREAT. 13:52:02 WAR MAY HAVE INTELLIGENCE THAT WE AND OUR ALLIES NEED TO HAVE 13:52:07 TO PREVENT NEW ATTACKS. -- MANY ARE AL QAEDA OPERATIVES 13:52:13 OR TALIBAN OPERATIVES TRIED TO CONCEAL THEIR IDENTITIES. 13:52:19 WILL POLLING INFORMATION CAN PREVENT THE SAVING OF AMERICAN 13:52:23 LIVES. THIS HAS THE NECESSARY TO MOVE 13:52:25 THESE INDIVIDUALS TO AN ENVIRONMENT WHERE THEY COULD BE 13:52:27 HELD SECRETLY, QUESTION BY EXPERTS, AND WHEN APPROPRIATE, 13:52:33 PROSECUTED FOR TERRORIST ACTS. SOME OF THESE INDIVIDUALS ARE 13:52:37 TAKEN TO THE UNITED STATES NAVAL BASE AT GUANTANAMO BAY, CUBA. 13:52:41 IT IS IMPORTANT FOR AMERICANS AND OTHERS ACROSS THE WORLD TO 13:52:45 UNDERSTAND THE KIND OF PEOPLE HELD AT GUANTANAMO. 13:52:49 THESE ARE NOT COMMON CRIMINALS. OR BYSTANDERS ACCIDENTALLY SWEPT 13:52:56 UP ON THE BATTLEFIELD. WE HAVE IN PLACE A RIGOROUS 13:52:59 PROCESS TO ENSURE THAT THOSE HELD AT GUANTANAMO BAY ALARM AT 13:53:03 GUANTANAMO BAY. THOSE HELD AT GUANTANAMO INCLUDE 13:53:07 SUSPECTED BOMB LEADERS, TERRORIST TRAINERS, RECRUITERS 13:53:12 AND FACILITATORS, AND A POTENTIAL SUICIDE BOMBERS. 13:53:18 THEY ARE IN OUR CUSTODY SO THEY CANNOT MURDER OUR PEOPLE. 13:53:25 ONE DETAINEE HELD AT GUANTANAMO TOLD US UNQUESTIONING -- HE SAID 13:53:30 THIS, I WILL NEVER FORGET YOUR FACE. 13:53:32 I WILL KILL YOU, YOUR BROTHERS, YOUR MOTHER, AND YOUR SISTERS. 13:53:38 IN ADDITION TO THE TERRORISTS HELD AT GUANTANAMO, A SMALL 13:53:43 NUMBER OF SUSPECTED TERRORIST LEADERS AND OPERATIVES CAPTURED 13:53:46 DURING THE WAR HAVE BEEN HELD AND QUESTIONED OUTSIDE THE 13:53:50 UNITED STATES. IN A SEPARATE PROGRAM OPERATED 13:53:54 BY THE CIA. THIS GROUP INCLUDES INDIVIDUALS 13:53:59 BELIEVED TO BE THE KEY ARCHITECTS OF THE NINES -- 13:54:03 SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS. AND ATTACKS ON THE USS COAL. 13:54:06 AN OPERATIVE INVOLVED IN THE BOMBINGS IN KENYA AND TANZANIA. 13:54:13 INDIVIDUALS INVOLVED IN ATTACKS AND HAVE TAKEN THE LIVES OF 13:54:17 INNOCENT CIVILIANS ACROSS THE WORLD. 13:54:19 THESE ARE DANGEROUS MEN. WITH AN UNPARALLELED KNOWLEDGE 13:54:24 OF TERRORIST NETWORKS, AND THEIR PLANS OF NEW ATTACKS. 13:54:29 THE SECURITY OF OUR NATION AND THE LIVES OF OUR CITIZENS DEPEND 13:54:34 ON OUR ABILITY TO LEARN WHAT THESE TERRORISTS KNOW. 13:54:40 MANY SPECIFICS OF THIS PROGRAM INCLUDING WHERE THE DETAINEES 13:54:44 HAVE BEEN HELD IN THE DETAILS OF THEIR CONFINEMENT CANNOT BE 13:54:48 DIVULGED. DOING SO WOULD PROVIDE OUR 13:54:52 ENEMIES WITH INFORMATION THEY COULD USE TO TAKE RETRIBUTION 13:54:54 AGAINST OUR ALLIES AND HARM OUR COUNTRY. 13:54:57 I CAN'T SAY THAT QUESTIONING THE DETAILS -- I CAN SAY THAT 13:55:03 QUESTIONING THE DETAINEES HAVE GIVEN US INFORMATION THAT HAS 13:55:06 STABILIZED BY HELPING US STOP NEW ATTACKS. 13:55:09 HERE IN THE UNITED STATES AND ACROSS THE WORLD. 13:55:14 TODAY I WILL SHARE WITH YOU SOME THE EXAMPLE PROVIDED BY OUR 13:55:19 INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY ABOUT HOW THIS PROGRAM HAS SAVED LIVES. 13:55:22 WHILE IT REMAINS VITAL TO THE SECURITY OF THE UNITED STATES 13:55:25 AND OUR FRIENDS AND ALLIES, AND WHY IT DESERVES THE SUPPORT OF 13:55:30 THE UNITED STATES CONGRESS AND THE AMERICAN PEOPLE. 13:55:34 WITHIN MONTHS OF SEPTEMBER THE 11TH 2001 WE CAPTURED A MAN 13:55:37 NAMED --. WE BELIEVE HE WAS A SENIOR 13:55:42 TERRORIST LEADER AND A TRUSTED ASSOCIATE OF OSAMA BIN LADEN. 13:55:51 OUR INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY BELIEVES HE HAD RUN A TERRORIST 13:55:53 CAMP IN AFGHANISTAN WHERE SOME OF THAT 9/11 HIJACKERS TRAIN, 13:55:59 AND HE HELPED SMUGGLE AFGHAN LEADERS OUT AFTER COALITION 13:56:03 FORCES ARRIVED TO LIBERATE THE COUNTRY. 13:56:05 AS A BETA -- ZUBETA SEVERELY WOUNDED. 13:56:13 HE SURVIVED ONLY BECAUSE OF MEDICAL CARE ARRANGED BY THE 13:56:18 CIA. AFTER HE RECOVERED, HE WAS 13:56:24 DEFINED AND THE BASIS. HE DECLARED HIS HATRED OF 13:56:26 AMERICA. DURING QUESTION AND HE FIRST 13:56:32 DISCLOSED WHAT HE THOUGHT WAS NOMINAL INFORMATION. 13:56:34 AND THEN STOPPED ALL COOPERATION. 13:56:37 IN FACT, THAT NOMINAL INFORMATION TURNED OUT TO BE 13:56:41 QUITE IN FOR -- IMPORTANT. FOR SAMPLE, HE DISCLOSED CO-LEAD 13:56:49 SHAKE MUHAMMED, THE MASTERMIND BEHIND THE SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS. 13:56:54 THIS WAS A VITAL PIECE OF THE PALL THAT HELPED OUR 13:56:58 INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY PURSUE HIM. 13:57:01 HE ALSO PROVIDED INFORMATION TO STOP TERRORIST ATTACKS BEING 13:57:05 PLANNED INSIDE THE UNITED STATES, AN ATTACK WHICH WE HAD 13:57:10 NO PREVIOUS INFORMATION. HE TOLD US THAT AL QAEDA 13:57:14 OPERATIVES WERE PLANS TO LAUNCH AN ATTACK ON THE US AND 13:57:18 PROVIDE A PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE OPERATIVES, AND 13:57:22 INFORMATION ON THEIR GENERAL LOCATION. 13:57:24 BASED ON INFORMATION HE PROVIDED, THE PEOPLE WERE 13:57:27 DETAINED. ONE OF TRAVELING TO THE UNITED 13:57:30 STATES. WE KNEW THAT HE HAD MORE 13:57:34 INFORMATION THAT COULD SAVE INNOCENT LIVES. 13:57:36 BUT HE STOPPED TALKING. AS QUESTIONING PROCEEDED, IT 13:57:44 BECAME CLEAR THAT HE HAD RECEIVED TRAINING ON HOW TO 13:57:49 RESIST INTERROGATION. SO THE CIA USED AN ALTERNATIVE 13:57:53 SET OF PROCEDURES. THESE PROCEDURES WERE DESIGNED 13:57:55 TO BE SAFE. TO COMPLY WITH OUR LAWS, OUR 13:58:02 CONSTITUTION, AND OUR TREATY OBLIGATIONS. 13:58:05 THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REVIEWED THE AUTHORIZED METHODS 13:58:09 EXCESSIVELY. AND TO DETERMINE THEM TO BE 13:58:11 LAWFUL. I CANNOT DESCRIBE SPECIFIC 13:58:16 METHODS USED. I THINK YOU UNDERSTAND WHY. 13:58:19 IF I DID, IT WOULD HELP THE TERRORISTS HELP RESIST 13:58:22 QUESTIONING, AND TO KEEP INFORMATION FROM US THAT WE NEED 13:58:26 TO VENT NEW ATTACKS ON OUR COUNTRY. 13:58:29 BUT I CAN'T SAY THAT THE PROCEDURES WERE TOUGH, AND THEY 13:58:33 WERE SAFE, AND THEY WERE LAWFUL AND NECESSARY. 13:58:37 HE WAS QUESTIONED USING THESE PROCEDURES AND SOON BEGAN 13:58:41 PROVIDING INFORMATION ON KEY AL QAEDA OPERATIVES. 13:58:45 INCLUDING INFORMATION AND HELP US FIND AND CAPTURE MORE OF 13:58:48 THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ATTACKS ON SEPTEMBER THE 11TH. 13:58:53 FOR EXAMPLE, HE IDENTIFIED ONE OF THE ACCOMPLICES IN THE 13:58:58 ATTACKS. 14:00:01 THE LEADER OF AL QAEDA, SOUTH EAST ASIA A FILLY. 14:00:05 CIA OFFICERS CONFRONTED HIM WITH THIS INFORMATION. 14:00:10 HE CONFIRMED THAT THE MONEY HAD BEEN DELIVERED TO AN OPERATIVE. 14:00:15 AND PROVIDED BOTH A PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION AND CONTACT NUMBER 14:00:19 FOR THIS MAN. HAMBALI'S BROTHER WAS SOON 14:00:45 CAPTURED IN PAKISTAN AND IN TURN LED TO US A CELL OF 17 14:00:49 SOUTHEAST ASIAN OPERATIVES. WHEN CONFRONTED WITH THE NEWS 14:00:54 THAT HIS TERRORIST CELL HAD BEEN BROKEN UP, HE ADMITTED 14:00:58 OPERATIVES WERE BEING GROOMED AT KSM'S REQUEST FOR ATTACKS 14:01:02 INSIDE THE UNITED STATES. PROBABLY USING AIRPLANES. 14:01:08 DURING QUESTIONING KSM PROVIDED MANY OTHER DETAILS OF 14:01:11 OTHER PLOTS TO KILL INNOCENT AMERICANS. 14:01:15 FOR EXAMPLE, HE DESCRIBED THE DESIGN OF PLANNED ATTACKS ON 14:01:17 BUILDINGS INSIDE THE UNITED STATES AND HOW OPERATIVES WERE 14:01:22 DIRECTED TO CARRY THEM OUT. HE TOLD US THE OPERATIVES HAVE 14:01:27 BEEN INSTRUCTED TO ENSURE THAT THE EXPLOSIVES WENT OFF AT A 14:01:30 POINT THAT WAS HIGH ENOUGH TO PREVENT THE PEOPLE TRAPPED 14:01:34 ABOVE FROM ESCAPING OUT THE WINDOWS. 14:01:38 KSM ALSO PROVIDED VITAL INFORMATION ON AL QAEDA'S 14:01:41 EFFORTS TO OBTAIN BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS. 14:01:46 DURING QUESTIONING KSM ADMITTED HE HAD MET THREE 14:01:49 INDIVIDUALS INVOLVED IN AL QAEDA'S EFFORTS TO PRODUCE 14:01:51 ANTHRAX. A DEADLY BIOLOGICAL AGENT. 14:01:55 AND HE IDENTIFIED ONE OF THE INDIVIDUALS AS A TERRORIST. 14:02:02 KSM APPARENTLY BELIEVED WE ALREADY HAD THIS INFORMATION 14:02:05 BECAUSE AZID HAD BEEN CAPTURED AND TAKEN INTO FOREIGN CUSTODY 14:02:10 BEFORE KSM'S ARREST. IN FACT, WE DID NOT KNOW ABOUT 14:02:15 HIS ROLE IN AL QAEDA'S ANTHRAX PROGRAM. 14:02:21 INFORMATION FROM HIM HELPED LEAD TO THE CAPTURE OF TWO 14:02:25 PRINCIPAL SIS TANTS IN THE ANTHRAX PROGRAM. 14:02:27 WITHOUT THE INFORMATION PROVIDED BY KSM WE MIGHT NOT 14:02:31 HAVE UNCOVERED THIS AL QAEDA BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS PROGRAM. 14:02:35 OR STOPPED THIS AL QAEDA CELL FROM DEVELOPING ANTHRAX FOR 14:02:41 ATTACKS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES. 14:02:46 THESE ARE SOME OF THE PLOTS THAT SBRN STOPPED BECAUSE OF 14:02:48 THE INFORMATION OF THIS VITAL PROGRAM. 14:02:52 TERRORISTS HELD IN CIA CUSTODY HAVE ALSO PROVIDED 14:02:55 INFORMATION THAT HELPED STOP A PLANNED STRIKE ON US MARRINES 14:02:59 -- MARINES. THEY WERE GOING TO USE AN 14:03:02 EXPLOSIVE LADEN WATER TANKER. IT HELPED STOP A PLANNED ATTACK 14:03:06 ON THE US CONS RAT IN KARACHI USING CAR BOMBS AND MOTORCYCLE 14:03:11 BOMBS. AND IT HELPED STOP A PLOT TO 14:03:13 HIJACK PASSENGER PLANES AND FLY THEM INTO HEATHROW IN LONDON. 14:03:18 WE'RE GETTING VITAL INFORMATION NECESSARY TO DO OUR JOBS. 14:03:22 AND THAT'S TO PROTECT THE AMERICAN PEOPLE. 14:03:24 AND OUR ALLIES. INFORMATION FROM THE TERRORISTS 14:03:28 IN THIS PROGRAM HAS HELPED TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUALS THAT AL 14:03:31 QAEDA DEEMED SUITABLE FOR WESTERN OPERATIONS MANY OF WHOM 14:03:38 WE HAD NEVER HEARD ABOUT BEFORE. 14:03:41 THEY INCLUDE TERRORISTS WHO WERE SET TO CASE TARGETS INSIDE 14:03:43 THE UNITED STATES INCLUDING FINANCIAL BILLINGS IN MAJOR 14:03:48 CITIES ON THE EAST COAST. INFORMATION FROM TERRORISTS IN 14:03:52 CIA CUSTODY HAS PLAYED A ROLE IN THE CAPTURE OR 14:03:55 QUESTIONING OF NEARLY EVERY SENIOR AL QAEDA MEMBER OR 14:03:59 ASSOCIATE DETAINED BY THE US AND ITS ALLIES SINCE THIS 14:04:03 PROGRAM BEGAN. BY PROVIDING EVERYTHING FROM 14:04:07 INITIAL LEADS TO PHOTO IDENTIFICATIONS TO PRECISE 14:04:10 LOCATIONS OF WHERE TERRORISTS WERE HIDING THIS PROGRAM HAS 14:04:13 HELPED TO US TAKE POTENTIAL MASS MURDERS OFF THE STREETS 14:04:17 BEFORE THEY WERE ABLE TO KILL. THIS PROGRAM HAS ALSO PLAYED A 14:04:22 CRITICAL ROLE IN HELPING US UNDERSTAND THE ENEMY WE FACE IN 14:04:25 THIS WAR. TERRORISTS IN THIS PROGRAM HAVE 14:04:28 PAINTED A PICTURE OF AL QAEDA STRUCTURE AND FINANCING AND 14:04:31 COMMUNICATIONS AND LOGISTICS. THEY HAVE IDENTIFIED AL QAEDA'S 14:04:37 TRAVEL ROUTES AND SAFE HAVENS AND EXPLAINED HOW AL QAEDA 14:04:42 SENIOR LEADERSHIP COMMUNICATE INDICATES WITH ITS OPERATIVES 14:04:45 IN PLACES LIKE IRAQ. THEY PROVIDED INFORMATION THAT 14:04:48 ALLOWS US -- THAT HAS ALLOWED TO US MAKE SENSE OF DOCUMENTS 14:04:53 AND COMPUTER RECORDS THAT WE HAVE SEIZED IN TERRORIST RAIDS. 14:04:58 THEY HAVE IDENTIFIED VOICES AND RECORDINGS OF INTERCEPTED CALLS 14:05:03 AND HELPED US UNDERSTAND THE MEANING OF POTENTIALLY CRITICAL 14:05:06 TERRORISTS COMMUNICATIONS, THE INFORMATION WE GET FROM THESE 14:05:12 DETAINEES IS CORROBORATED BY INTELLIGENCE AND WE RECEIVED -- 14:05:15 THAT WE HAVE RECEIVED FROM OTHER SOURCES. 14:05:17 AND TOGETHER THIS INTELLIGENCE HAS HELPED US CONNECT THE DOTS 14:05:21 AND STOP ATTACKS BEFORE THEY OCCUR. 14:05:25 INFORMATION FROM THE TERRORIST QUESTIONERS PROGRAM HELPED 14:05:30 UNRAVEL PLOTS IN TERRORISTS CELLS IN EUROPE AND IN OTHER 14:05:33 PLACES. IT'S HELPED OUR ALLIES PROTECT 14:05:36 THEIR PEOPLE FROM DEADLY ENEMIES. 14:05:40 THIS PROGRAM HAS BEEN AND REMAINS ONE OF THE MOST VITAL 14:05:44 TOOLS IN OUR WAR AGAINST THE TERRORISTS. 14:05:47 IT IS INVALUABLE TO AMERICA AND TO OUR ALLIES. 14:05:52 WERE IT NOT FOR THIS PROGRAM OUR INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY 14:05:54 BELIEVES THAT AL QAEDA AND ITS ALLIES WOULD HAVE SUCCEEDED IN 14:05:57 LAUNCHING ANOTHER ATTACK AGAINST THE AMERICAN HOMELAND. 14:06:01 BY GIVING US INFORMATION ABOUT TERRORIST PLANS WE COULD NOT 14:06:04 GET ANYWHERE ELSE THIS PROGRAM HAS SAVED INNOCENT LIVES. 14:06:10 THIS PROGRAM HAS BEEN SUBJECT TO MULTIPLE LEGAL REVIEWS BY 14:06:14 THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE AND CIA LAWYERS. 14:06:17 THEY'VE DETERMINED IT COMPLIED WITH OUR LAWS. 14:06:21 THIS PROGRAM HAS RECEIVED STRICT OVERSIGHT BY THE 14:06:24 CIA'S INSPECTOR GENERAL. A SMALL NUMBER OF KEY LEADERS 14:06:29 FROM BOTH POLITICAL PARTIES ON CAPITOL HILL WERE BRIEFED ABOUT 14:06:32 THIS PROGRAM. ALL OF THOSE INVOLVED IN THE 14:06:36 QUESTIONING OF THE TERRORISTS ARE CAREFULLY CHOSEN AND 14:06:40 THEY'RE SCREENED FROM A POOL OF EXPERIENCED CIA OFFICERS. 14:06:44 THOSE SELECTED TO CONDUCT THE MOST SENSITIVE QUESTIONING HAD 14:06:49 TO COMPLETE MORE THAN 250 ADDITIONAL HOURS OF SPECIALIZED 14:06:52 TRAINING BEFORE THEY ARE ALLOWED TO HAVE CONTACT WITH A 14:06:55 CAPTURED TERRORIST. I WANT TO BE ABSOLUTELY CLEAR 14:06:59 WITH OUR PEOPLE AND THE WORLD THE UNITED STATES DOES NOT 14:07:02 TORTURE. IT'S AGAINST OUR LAWS AND IT'S 14:07:05 AGAINST OUR VALUES. I HAVE NOT AUTHORIZED IT AND I 14:07:08 WILL NOT AUTHORIZE IT. LAST YEAR MY ADMINISTRATION 14:07:13 WORK WITH SENATOR JOHN MCCAIN AND I SIGNED INTO LAW THE 14:07:16 DETAINEE TREATMENT ACT. WHICH ESTABLISHED THE LEGAL 14:07:19 STANDARDS FOR TREATMENT OF DETAINEES WHEREVER THEY ARE 14:07:22 HELD. I SUPPORT THIS ACT. 14:07:28 AND AS WE IMPLEMENT THIS LAW OUR GOVERNMENT WILL CONTINUE TO 14:07:31 USE EVERY LAWFUL METHOD TO OBTAIN INTELLIGENCE THAT CAN 14:07:35 PROTECT INNOCENT PEOPLE AND STOP ANOTHER ATTACK LIKE THE 14:07:38 ONE WE EXPERIENCED ON SEPTEMBER 11, 2001. 14:07:43 THE CIA PROGRAM HAS DETAINED ONLY A LIMITED NUMBER OF 14:07:47 TERRORISTS AT ANY GIVEN TIME. AND ONCE WE HAVE DETERMINED 14:07:51 THAT THE TERRORISTS HELD BY THE CIA HAVE LITTLE OR NO 14:07:55 ADINGSAL INTELLIGENCE VALUE MANY OF THEM HAVE BEEN RETURNED 14:07:58 TO THEIR HOME COUNTRIES FOR PROSECUTION FOR DETENTION BY 14:08:01 THEIR GOVERNMENTS. OTHERS HAVE BEEN ACCUSED OF 14:08:04 TERRIBLE CRIMES AGAINST THE AMERICAN PEOPLE. 14:08:06 AND WE HAVE A DUTY TO BRING THOSE RESPONSIBLE FOR THESE 14:08:08 CRIMES TO JUSTICE. SO WE INTEND TO PROSECUTE THESE 14:08:13 MEN AS APPROPRIATE FOR THEIR CRIMES. 14:08:17 SOON AFTER THE WAR ON TERROR BEGAN I AUTHORIZED A SYSTEM OF 14:08:21 MILITARY COMMISSIONS TO TRY FOREIGN TERRORISTS ACCUSED OF 14:08:25 WAR CRIMES. MILITARY COMMISSIONS HAVE BEEN 14:08:28 USED BY PRESIDENTS FROM GEORGE WASHINGTON TO FRANKLIN 14:08:30 ROOSEVELT. TO PROSECUTE WAR CRIMINALS. 14:08:34 BECAUSE THE RULES FOR TRYING ENEMY COMBATANTS IN A TIME OF 14:08:39 CONFLICT MUST BE DIFFERENT FROM THOSE WHERE TRYING COMMON 14:08:43 CRIMINALS OR MEMBERS OF OUR OWN MILITARY. 14:08:45 ONE OF THE FIRST SUSPECTED TERRORISTS TO BE PUT ON TRIAL 14:08:48 BY MILITARY COMMISSION WAS ONE OF OSAMA BIN LADEN'S 14:08:51 BODYGUARDS. A MAN NAMED HAMPDEN. 14:08:54 -- HAMDEN. HIS LAWYERS CHALLENGED THE 14:08:58 LEGALITY OF THE MILITARY COMMISSION SYSTEM. 14:09:02 IT TOOK MORE THAN TWO YEARS NOR THIS CASE TO MAKES ITS WAY 14:09:05 THROUGH THE COURTS. THE COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE 14:09:11 DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA CIRCUIT UPHELD THE MILITARY COMMISSIONS 14:09:14 WE HAD DESIGNED. BUT THIS PAST JUNE THE SUPREME 14:09:17 COURT OVERTURNED THAT DECISION. THE SUPREME COURT DETERMINED 14:09:21 THAT MILITARY COMMISSIONS ARE AN APPROPRIATE VENUE FOR TRYING 14:09:29 TERRORISTS. BUT RULE THAT MILITARY 14:09:31 COMMISSIONS NEEDED TO BE AUTHORIZED BY THE UNITED STATES 14:09:33 CONGRESS. TODAY I'M AUTHORIZE FOR THE 14:09:42 COMMISSIONS TO TRY TERRORISTS FOR WAR CRIMES. 14:09:45 MY ADMINISTRATION HAS BEEN WORKING WITH MEMBERS OF BOTH 14:09:48 PARTIES IN THE HOUSE AND SENATE OF THIS LEGISLATION. 14:09:51 WE PUT FORWARD A BILL THAT ENSURES THESE COMMISSIONS ARE 14:09:54 ESTABLISHED IN A WAY THAT PROTECTS OUR NATIONAL SECURITY 14:09:58 AND ENSURE AS A FULL AND FAIR TRIAL FOR THOSE ACCUSED. 14:10:03 THE PROCEDURES IN THE BILL I AM SENDING TO CONGRESS TODAY 14:10:06 REFLECT THE REALITY THAT WE ARE A NATION AT WAR. 14:10:10 AND THAT IS ESSENTIAL FOR TO US USE ALL RELIABLE EVIDENCE TO 14:10:14 BRING THESE PEOPLE TO JUSTICE. WE'RE NOW APPROACHING THE 14:10:20 FIVE-YEAR ANNIVERSARY OF THE 9/11 ATTACKS AND THE FAMILIES 14:10:23 OF THOSE MURDERED THAT DAY HAVE WAITED ASIANLY FOR JUSTICE. 14:10:29 SOME OF THE FAMILIES WITH US TODAY SHOULD HAVE TO WAIT NO 14:10:32 LONGER. SO I'M ANNOUNCING TODAY THAT 14:10:36 KHALID SHAIKH MOHAMMED, ABU ZUBAYDAH , RAMSEY AL SHE'D AND 14:10:43 11 OTHER TERRORISTS IN CIA CUSTODY HAVE BEEN TRANSFERRED 14:10:45 TO THE UNITED STATES NAVAL BASE AT GUANTANAMO BAY. 14:10:51 [APPLAUSE] SONGSCONGS AUTHORIZES THE 14:11:31 COMMISSIONS I PROPOSED, THEY CAN FACE JUSTICE. 14:11:38 [APPLAUSE] >> WE WILL ALSO SEEK TO 14:12:09 PROSECUTE THOSE BELIEVED TO BE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ATTACK ON 14:12:11 THE USS COLE. AND AN OPERATIVE BELIEVED TO BE 14:12:14 INVOLVED IN THE BOMBINGS OF THE AMERICAN EMBASSIES IN KENYA AND 14:12:17 TANZANIA. WITH THESE PROSECUTIONS WE WILL 14:12:23 SEND A CLEAR MESSAGE TO THOSE WHO KILL AMERICANS. 14:12:25 NO LONGER HOW LONG IT TAKES, WE WILL FIND YOU AND WE WILL BRING 14:12:28 YOU TO JUSTICE. [APPLAUSE] 14:12:44 THESE MEN WILL BE HELD IN A HIGH SECURITY FACILITY AT 14:12:47 GUANTANAMO. THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF 14:12:50 THE RED CROSS IS BEING ADVISED OF THEIR DETENTION. 14:12:53 AND WILL HAVE THE OIRP TO MEET WITH THEM THOSE CHARGED WITH 14:13:00 CRIMES WILL BE GIVEN ACCESS TO ATTORNEYS WHO WILL HELP THEM 14:13:02 PREPARE THEIR DEFENSE AND THEY WILL BE PRESUMED INNOCENT. 14:13:07 WHILE AT GUANTANAMO THEY WILL HAVE ACCESS TO THE SAME FOOD, 14:13:10 CLOTHING, MEDICAL CARE AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR WORSHIP AS 14:13:13 OTHER DETAINEES. THEY WILL BE QUESTIONED SUBJECT 14:13:16 TO THE NEW US ARMY FIELD MANUAL. 14:13:18 WHICH THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE IS ISSUING TODAY. 14:13:24 AND THEY WILL CONTINUE TO BE TREATED WITH THE HUMANITY THAT 14:13:28 THEY DENIED OTHERS. AS WE MOVE FORWARD WITH THE 14:13:30 PROSECUTIONS WE WILL CONTINUE TO URGE NATIONS TO TAKE BACK 14:13:37 THEIR NATIONALS AT GUANTANAMO WHO WILL NOT BE PROSECUTED BY 14:13:42 MILITARY COMMISSIONS. AMERICA HAS NO INTEREST IN 14:13:46 BEING THE WORLD'S JAILER. ONE OF THE REASONS WE HAVE NOT 14:13:50 BEEN ABLE TO CLOSE GUANTANAMO IS THAT MANY COUNTRIES HAVE 14:13:52 REFUSED TO TAKE BACK THEIR NATIONALS HELD AT THE FACILITY. 14:13:57 OTHER COUNTRIES HAVE NOT PROVIDED ADEQUATE INSURANCES 14:14:01 THAT THEIR NATIONALS WILL NOT BE MISTREATED. 14:14:05 OR THEY WILL NOT RETURN TO THE BATTLEFIELD AS MORE THAN A 14:14:10 DOZEN PEOPLE RELEASED FROM GUANTANAMO ALREADY HAVE. 14:14:16 WE WILL CONTINUE WORKING TO TRANSFER INDIVIDUALS HELD AT 14:14:19 GUANTANAMO AND ASK OTHER COUNTRIES TO WORK WITH US IN 14:14:22 THIS PROCESS. AND WE WILL MOVE TOWARD THE DAY 14:14:27 WHEN WE CAN EVENTUALLY CLOSE THE DETENTION FACILITY AT 14:14:30 GUANTANAMO BAY. I KNOW AMERICANS HAVE HEARD 14:14:35 CONFLICTING INFORMATION ABOUT GUANTANAMO. 14:14:38 LET ME GIVE YOU SOME FACTS. OF THE THOUSANDS OF TERRORISTS 14:14:43 CAPTURED ACROSS THE WORLD ONLY ABOUT 770 HAVE EVER BEEN SENT 14:14:48 TO GUANTANAMO. OF THESE ABOUT 315 HAVE BEEN 14:14:54 RETURNED TO OTHER COUNTRIES SO FAR AND ABOUT 455 REMAIN IN OUR 14:14:58 CUSTODY. THEY ARE PROVIDED THE SAME 14:15:02 QUALITY OF MEDICAL CARE AS THE AMERICAN SERVICE MEMBERS WHO 14:15:06 GUARD THEM. THE INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF 14:15:11 THE RED CROSS HAS THE OPPORTUNITY TO MEET PRIVATELY 14:15:13 WITH ALL WHO ARE HELD THERE. THE FACILITY HAS BEEN VISITED 14:15:18 BY GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS FROM MORE THAN 30 COUNTRIES AND 14:15:24 DELEGATIONS FROM INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AS WELL. 14:15:27 AFTER THE ORGANIZATION FOR SECURITY AND CORPORATION IN 14:15:30 EUROPE CAME TO VISIT ONE OF THE DELEGATION MEMBERS CALLED 14:15:33 GUANTANAMO A MODEL PRISON. WHERE PEOPLE ARE TREATED BETTER 14:15:38 THAN IN PRISONS IN HIS OWN COUNTRY. 14:15:42 OUR TROOPS CAN TAKE GREAT PRIDE IN THE WORK THEY DO AT 14:15:45 GUANTANAMO BAY AND SO CAN THE AMERICAN PEOPLE. 14:15:49 AS WE PROSECUTE SUSPECTED TERRORIST LEADERS AND 14:15:51 OPERATIVES WHO HAVE NOW BEEN TRANSFERRED TO GUANTANAMO, 14:15:56 WE'LL CONTINUE SEARCHING FOR THOSE WHO HAVE STEPPED FORWARD 14:16:00 TO TAKE THEIR PLACES. THIS NATION IS GOING TO STAY ON 14:16:06 THE OFFENSE TO PROTECT THE AMERICAN PEOPLE. 14:16:09 WE WILL CONTINUE TO BRING THE WORLD'S MOST DANGEROUS 14:16:12 TERRORISTS TO JUSTICE. AND WE WILL CONTINUE WORKING TO 14:16:16 COLLECT THE VITAL INTELLIGENCE WE NEED TO PROTECT OUR COUNTRY. 14:16:22 THE CURRENT TRANSFERS MEAN THAT THERE ARE NOW NO TERRORISTS IN 14:16:25 THE CIA PROGRAM. BUT AS MORE HIGH-RANKING 14:16:33 TERRORISTS ARE CAPTURED, THE NEED TO OBTAIN INTELLIGENCE 14:16:36 FROM THEM WILL REMAIN CRITICAL AND HAVING A CIA PROGRAM FOR 14:16:39 QUESTIONING TERRORISTS WILL CONTINUE TO BE CRUCIAL TO 14:16:42 GETTING LIFE SAVING INFORMATION. 14:16:47 SOME MAY ASK WHY YOU'RE ACKNOWLEDGING THIS PROGRAM NOW. 14:16:51 THERE ARE TWO REASONS WHY I'M MAKING THESE LIMITED 14:16:54 DISCLOSURES TODAY. FIRST, WE HAVE LARGELY 14:16:58 COMPLETED OUR QUESTIONING OF THE MEN. 14:17:01 AND TO START THE PROCESS FOR BRINGING THEM TO TRIAL WE MUST 14:17:05 BRING THEM INTO THE OPEN. SECOND, THE SUPREME COURT'S 14:17:11 RECENT DECISION HAS IMPAIRED OUR ABILITY TO PROSECUTE 14:17:13 TERRORISTS THROUGH MILITARY COMMISSIONS. 14:17:17 AND HAS PUT IN QUESTION THE FUTURE OF THE CIA PROGRAM. 14:17:23 IN ITS RULING ON MILITARY COMMISSIONS THE COURT 14:17:27 DETERMINED THAT A PROVISION OF THE GENEVA CONVENTION KNOWN AS 14:17:31 COMMON ARTICLE THREE APPLIES TO OUR WAR WITH AL QAEDA. 14:17:36 THIS ARTICLE INCLUDES PROVISIONS THAT PROHIBIT 14:17:41 OUTRAGES UPON PERSONAL DIGNITY AND HUMILIATING AND DEGRADING 14:17:46 TREATMENT. THE PROBLEM IS THAT THESE AND 14:17:50 OTHER PROVISIONS OF COMMON ARTICLE THREE ARE VAGUE AND 14:17:52 UNDEFINED. AND EACH COULD BE INTERPRETED 14:17:57 IN DIFFERENT WAYS BY AN AMERICAN OR FOREIGN JUDGES. 14:18:02 AND SOME BELIEVE OUR MILITARY AND INTELLIGENCE PERSONNEL 14:18:05 INVOLVED IN CAPTURING AND QUESTIONING TERRORISTS COULD 14:18:08 NOW BE AT RISK OF PROSECUTION UNDER THE WAR CRIMES ACT SIMPLY 14:18:14 FOR DOING THEIR JOBS IN A THOROUGH AND PROFESSIONAL WAY. 14:18:19 THIS IS UNACCEPTABLE. OUR MILITARY AND INTELLIGENCE 14:18:24 PERSONNEL GO FACE-TO-FACE WITH THE WORLD'S MOST DANGEROUS MEN 14:18:27 EVERY DAY. THEY HAVE RISKED THEIR LIVES TO 14:18:31 CAPTURE SOME OF THE MOST BRUTAL TERRORISTS ON EARTH. 14:18:34 AND THEY HAVE WORKED DAY AND NIGHT TO FIND OUT WHAT THE 14:18:37 TERRORISTS KNOW SO WE CAN STOP NEW ATTACKS. 14:18:41 AMERICA OWES OUR BRAVE MEN AND WOMEN SOME THINGS IN RETURN 14:18:45 THAT WE OWE THEM THANKS FOR SAVING LIVES AND KEEPING 14:18:48 AMERICA SAFE, AND WE OWE THEM CLEAR RULES SO THEY CAN 14:18:54 CONTINUE TO DO THEIR JOBS AND PROTECT OUR PEOPLE. 14:18:58 SO TODAY I'M ASKING CONGRESS TO PASS LEGISLATION THAT WILL 14:19:03 CLARIFY THE RULES FOR OUR PERSONNEL FIGHT THE WAR ON 14:19:07 TERROR. FIRST, I AM ASKING CONGRESS TO 14:19:12 LIST THE SPECIFIC RECOGNIZABLE OFFENSES THAT WOULD BE 14:19:16 CONSIDERED CRIMES UNDER THE WAR CRIMES ACT. 14:19:20 SO OUR PERSONNEL CAN KNOW CLEARLY WHAT IS PROHIBITED IN 14:19:23 THE HANDLING OF TERRORIST ENEMIES. 14:19:26 SECOND, I'M ASKING THAT CONGRESS MAKE EXPLICIT THAT BY 14:19:31 FOLLOWING THE STANDARDS OF THE DETAINEE TREATMENT ACT OUR 14:19:35 PERSONNEL ARE FULFILLING AMERICA'S OBLIGATIONS UNDER 14:19:38 COMMON ARTICLE THREE OF THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS. 14:19:43 THIRD, I'M ASKING THAT CONGRESS MAKE CLEAR THAT CAPTURED 14:19:47 TERRORISTS CANNOT USE THE GENEVA CONVENTIONS AS A BASIS 14:19:51 TO SUE OUR PERSONNEL IN COURTS. AND US COURTS. 14:19:58 THE MEN AND WOMEN WHO PROTECT US SHOULD NOT HAVE TO FEAR 14:20:01 LAWSUITS FILED BY TERRORISTS BECAUSE THEY'RE DOING THEIR 14:20:03 JOBS. THE NEED FOR THIS LEGISLATION 14:20:06 IS URGENT. WE NEED TO ENSURE THAT THOSE 14:20:11 QUESTIONING TERRORISTS CAN CONTINUE TO DO EVERYTHING 14:20:13 WITHIN THE LIMITS OF THE LAW TO GET INFORMATION THAT CAN SAVE 14:20:18 AMERICAN LIVES. MY ADMINISTRATION WILL CONTINUE 14:20:22 TO WORK WITH THE CONGRESS TO GET THIS LEGISLATION ENACTED. 14:20:27 BUT TIME IS OF THE ESSENCE. CONGRESS IS IN SESSION FOR A 14:20:31 FEW MORE WEEKS AND PASSING THIS LEGISLATION OUGHT TO BE THE TOP 14:20:34 PRIORITY. [APPLAUSE] 14:20:58 >> AS WE WORK WITH CONGRESS TO PASS A GOOD BILL, WE WILL ALSO 14:21:02 CONSULTANT WITH CONGRESSIONAL LEADERS ON HOW TO ENSURE THAT 14:21:05 THE CIA PROGRAM GOES FORWARD IN A WAY THAT FOLLOWS THE LAW. 14:21:09 THAT MEETS THE NATIONAL SECURITY NEEDS OF OUR COUNTRY 14:21:13 AND PROTECTS THE BRAVE MEN AND WOMEN WE ASKED TO OBTAIN 14:21:17 INFORMATION THAT WILL SAVE INNOCENT LIVES. 14:21:20 FOR THE SAKE OF OUR SECURITY CONGRESS NEEDS ACT AND UPDATE 14:21:24 OUR LAWS TO MEET THE THREATS OF THIS NEW ERA. 14:21:27 AND I KNOW THEY WILL. WE'RE ENGAGED IN A GLOBAL 14:21:31 STRUGGLE. AND THE ENTIRE CIVILIZED WORLD 14:21:35 HAS A STAKE IN ITS OUTCOME. AMERICA IS A NATION OF LAW. 14:21:42 AND AS A WORK WITH CONGRESS TO STRENGTHEN AND CLARIFY OUR LAWS 14:21:45 HERE AT HOME, I WILL CONTINUE TO WORK WITH MEMBERS OF THE 14:21:48 INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY WHO HAVE BEEN OUR PARTNERS IN THIS 14:21:52 STRUGGLE. I'VE SPOKEN WITH LEADERS OF 14:21:54 FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS AND WORKED WITH THEM TO ADDRESS THEIR 14:21:57 CONCERNS ABOUT GUANTANAMO AND OUR DETENTION POLICIES. 14:22:01 I'LL CONTINUE TO WORK WITH THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY TO 14:22:04 CONSTRUCT A COMMON FOUNDATION TO DEFEND OUR NATIONS AND 14:22:08 PROTECT OUR FREEDOMS. NATIONS FACE NEW ENEMY AND 14:22:14 ADJUSTED TO NEW THREATS BEFORE AND WE HAVE PREVAILED. 14:22:18 LIKE THE STRUGGLES OF THE LAST CENTURY TODAY'S WAR ON TERROR 14:22:21 IS ABOVE ALL A STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM AND LIBERTY. 14:22:25 THE ADVERSARIES ARE DIFFERENT. BUT THE STAKES IN THIS WAR ARE 14:22:28 THE SAME. WE'RE FIGHTING FOR OUR WAY OF 14:22:31 LIFE AND OUR ABILITY TO LIVE IN FREEDOM. 14:22:34 WE'RE FIGHTING FOR THE CAUSE OF HUMANITY AGAINST THOSE WHO SEEK 14:22:39 TO IMPOSE THE DARKNESS OF TYRANNY AND TERROR UPON THE 14:22:42 ENTIRE WORLD. AND WE'RE FIGHTING FOR A 14:22:45 PEACEFUL FUTURE FOR OUR CHILDREN AND OUR GRANDCHILDREN. 14:22:48 MAY GOD BLESS YOU ALL. [APPLAUSE]