Exercise on the Shuttle
Astronaut Gordon Fullerton does pull-ups near a ladder on the mid deck. At the end he pulls up so much he disappears through the hatch up into the flight deck. Date recorded: 1985-07-29 to 1985-08-06
PA-2175 1 inch
Building Men for the US Navy
Faux Political Ad ~ politician dressed as '90lb weakling' exercising/getting in shape, including, tennis, sliding on slide at playground, doing chin ups ~ cute/funny/bizzarre x 6.
World - Laughter
A world laughter tour that is funny.
Woman almost loses balance while practicing longboard tricks in parking lot
User generated phone footage of young carefree adult female dressed in warm clothing almost losing her balance while trying tricks on a longboard in an empty parking lot
Two men jumping and flipping on trampolines in the 1950s.
Various Subjects
b&w - WWII - USO and Hollywood stars, young men in city walk into draft office from street - c/u shots of faces of young men taking oath - caucasian, black - Asia, steam locomotive blows smoke - train passes and soldiers wave from windows - soldiers march in field - field exercises - Joe E. Brown performs and makes funny faces at microphone - intercut w/ soldier, audience reactions, African-Americans
Interview with Dr Rashid Khalidi pt 1
Interview with Dr Rashid Khalidi as he discusses claims to the land since Biblical times and the eras of change and Zionism, effects of the British colonialism, Hitler and land ownership.,INTERVIEWER:,Can I have your name and the spelling please? ,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:02:06:27>>>,My name is Rashid Khalidi R-A-S-H-I-D K-H-A-L-I-D-I,INTERVIEWER:,And your official title you like to use please?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:02:15:01>>>,I'm the Edwardscient professor of Arab studies and the Director of The Middle East Institute at Columbia University.,INTERVIEWER:,If you don't mind where are you from are you from America do you have origins in Palestine?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:02:29:23>>>,I'm Palestine origin. My families from Jerusalem. Um I was born in the United States I'm a Palestinian American. ,INTERVIEWER:,Did your parents, were they the ones that immigrated here?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:02:42:09>>>,Yeah my mom emigrated here from Lebanon right after World War I. And my dad came here as a graduate student and sort of got stuck after 1948. So yes both of my parents came to the United States. ,INTERVIEWER:,What motivated you to get interested in this area of Palestine studies?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:03:11:19>>>,That's a good question. I suppose I got interested in this area because my father um worked for the United Nations ah was in worked for the Security Council and brought the subject home at dinner. When I a kid every night I'd hear what had happened you know the previous day in the Security Council, what had happened the previous day in the Middle East. And since I was a little kid it was something that everybody all around me was talking about. So was, I've always been interested in it and I've always been hearing about I since I was small.,INTERVIEWER:,We hear about the history most of us hear about the history of the land basically inaudible desolation for 2000 years boom all of a sudden the Zionist come inaudible. The land kind of we don't know much about what happened in between that's the typical western story. What's a different perspective on really briefly history and continuity of the land and Palestine and it's people between the two Israel civilization?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:04:16:05>>>,Well the problem with a, with a Israel centered or a bible centered view of Palestine is that what happened for millennia is just a backdrop to a biblical narrative which then sort of moves into the narrative or the reestablishment or the establishment of the modern state of Israel and the rest is not important. Um a more balanced narrative would talk about the fact that you had Palestinians. People who came 19th 20th century call themselves Palestinians um whose ancestors had been there ah probably dating back to biblical times perhaps earlier it's hard to say but who see themselves as being descendants from not just the Arab conquerors of Palestine in the 7th century but also from the populations that were there most of which converted to Islam. The overwhelming majority of the population of the Arab world people were now Arabic speakers and Muslims um in fact were there before the Arab conquerors and became Arabs i.e. Arabic speakers and Muslims um rather than coming in of waves of migration. So I guess the, the a more correct view would have it that you're talking about a country that was always inhabited and most of whose indigenous population are the descendants of today's Palestinians. ,INTERVIEWER:,You said they came to call themselves Palestinians in the 19th 20th century how did that come about how did what was the transition from what to what and how did that happen?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:05:46:24>>>,It came about in a way which most people in today's modern world came to think of themselves in national terms. Um before the 18th or 19th century most people didn't think of themselves in national terms. Frenchmen, or women English men or women, Serbians whatever did not think of themselves in terms of the modern national identifications which we attach to them. Um in almost every case the world over religion or some density that may very tenuous connection with a given country um much more local things were the identifiers. ,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:06:20:23>>>,People in Palestine defined themselves in terms of their town and village, in terms of their family, in terms of their ethnicity Arab, in terms of their religion Muslim, Christian or in terms of the fact that they were under the ottoman empire from the beginning of the 16th century until the beginning of the 20th century those would have been the identifiers. Um some ethnic, some religious, some local but not national there were no national identifications in the Middle East in the 18th or the 19th early 19th century. Um it really is a modern invention national identity and for the Palestinians as for every other Middle Eastern people um it's completely new. And for centuries for millennia you really didn't have that you had states that had some kind of ethic basis but the idea of a modern nation state is a, is a, is an invention of the 19th and 20th centuries.,INTERVIEWER:,For both the Jews and the Arabs?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:07:10:08>>>,That's actually true of the Jews too. You had people hood but in the sense that all Jews had to be in a Jewish state is a modern idea. Um you had Jews all over the ancient world even when Jews lived and dominated most of what we today call Palestine ancient Israel um the idea that they had to be in Israel or that Israel was their state um is, is a modern 20th century idea late19th early 20th century.,INTERVIEWER:,So when Zionists talk about our claim the land dating back many generations to ancient Israel this kind of claim is probably is it misplaced or is it not anymore true than the Palestinian?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:07:47:13>>>,Well each claim is different. Um the claim ah that ancient Israel is the basis the modern state of Israel involves a sort of a transmutation of something that was originally religious into modern nation state nationalism. And that's, that's a leap that Zionism took in the late 19th and early 20th century. Um before that most people who identified themselves as Jewish had a sense of, of ah connection to the Holy land, to Israel. Um but that did not identify as that did not translate into the belief that they had a right to sovereignty in that country, that that had to be a Jewish country, that there had to be a Jewish government in that country the Jewish people had to be there.,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:08:31:04>>>,These ideas did not exist. The idea of a return to Zion which existed in Judaism going all the way back from the time of, of the first Diaspora after the destruction of the temple in 70 A.D. the idea of a return to Zion in fact even before Babylonian captivity um these ideas um were religious in nature and they were longing for a return to the homeland they weren't desire for national sovereignty in a homeland which the Jewish people would the only da da da da that's a modern, that's a modern notion those kinds of notions don't exist in the pre modern era and most Jews didn't think in those terms for millennia. ,INTERVIEWER:,Once the Zionists came to Palestine they brought land deeds from absentee landowners inaudible they talked about people without a land ,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:09:21:28>>>,Land yeah people without a land for a land without a people. ,INTERVIEWER:,Right but there were people. What was the affect of Zionist land buying and land settling on the people?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:09:34:02>>>,Well Zionist land purchase had a minimal affect in terms of the overall um pattern of landholding in Palestine right up to 1948. Um the total amount of land of the land area of Palestine that was purchased was about 6 percent. So most of the land in Palestine was not Jewish owned when Israel was established. Um most of the land in what became the state of Israel the areas ah that were Israel up to the 1967 war were not Jewish property before the 1948 war. Israel after the 48 war basically took over the great majority of the land of of what was now the state of Israel which was Arab owned land. Some of it was state land. Um so land purchased played a role in establishing the nucleus of the Zionist enterprise in rooting people in the land and in creating the strategic backbone of the springboard for um what eventually transpired which was the conquest of the country in 1948. Um Ken Stein in his book has how the settlements in the coastal region in the veil of Israeli the area running down from Haifa to Bes—then running up the eastern side of Galilee in an N shape formed the strategic nucleus and a, a certain military basis um even before 1939 for the ultimate takeover of the country. ,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:10:59:14>>>,And so it was important but it never in any district of Palestine of the many 20 odd districts of Palestine um lead to ah majority of the land being Jewish owned. Arabs owned most of the land in Palestine before 1948.,INTERVIEWER:,So as I understand it the adverse effect on Palestinian farm dwellers people living on the land working on the land when Zionists immigrants brought up that land was there an adverse affect or was this just kind of a minor development? ,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:11:31:12>>>,No there was an effect. Um up till a certain point in the Zionist enterprise even land purchase didn't have much of an effect because throughout most of the 19th century in the settlements that were established in the 1880's and 1890's and right into the first decade of the 20th century um the Arab cultivators were generally left on the land with Jewish overseers. What happened in the beginning of the 20th century was a transformation of the Zionist enterprise to emphasis Hebrew labor, to emphasis that Jews themselves should till this Jewish owned land. What this meant was expelling the cultivators the Arab cultivators. So the people who lost their land who had absentee landlords sold the title over their heads might not have realized until they were actually kicked off the land much later that they had in fact lost not just the title which they probably didn't have in the first place because of whatever inaudible that happened over their heads but the right to use the land, the right to use their home villages. So yes there was an impact. Um it was only creating areas the coastal region, the area around Haifa, the area running down to Besin from Haifa and the area in the east of eastern Galilee that this was most strongly felt. In other areas like the hill regions of what is now the West Bank there was very little affect. And most of central and northern Galilee there was very little affect. Most of what is now the Niaffe there was very little affect. But in, in some regions it was there was more of an affect.,INTERVIEWER:,And the reason you say is because most of the land was already owned even title wise by Palestinians?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:13:03:00>>>,Yeah I mean the West Bank you know the area of the west bank had almost no Jewish land ownership. There was a little bit in area around Hevron a little bit in the area around Jerusalem and that was about it. Um the same is true in Galilee except eastern Galilee and and that area running southeast from Haifa.,INTERVIEWER:,You describe Zionist expelling the Arab cultivators do you think that was an insidious did Zionism have an insidious or malicious agenda coming in displacing people or was it was it more of a romantic Jewish labor type thing that incidentally?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:13:35:18>>>,Intend doesn't really matter. The intent was of course as pure as the driven snow. The affect was people who were the cultivators who had owned, had use of the right of use of their land under tradition traditional Islamic law and traditional practices of land use under the new law laws of private property that were introduced from the 1850's in the ottoman empire now simply tenants and the new owners were exercising their modern western property rights and expelling them. So from one point of view it was simple, simply you know owners exercising property rights. From another point of view it was a, a magical mystical reattachment of a people separated, you know violence had come in at that point, separated from their land for millennia by cruel roman conquers and kept away bla bla bla once again plunging their heads into the earth. And then you have camera shots of guys in shorts and women digging and all. I mean anybody who's over 50 knows what I'm talking about there are films showing pioneers. So it was both ideologically important, it was emotionally important, tic was pure as the driven snow in terms of intention but the affect in those areas were it had an important impact was the exploitation of the peasants from their from land that they had historically tilled.,INTERVIEWER:,And that you don't see in the films and in the poems and all that stuff?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:14:51:07>>>,Well you see it in Palestinian history. You see it in lots of histories even now being written I mean there are good histories now by Israelis talking about the impact of this. ,INTERVIEWER:,What happened to them inaudible?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:15:03:08>>>,Well I mean some of them became laborers in the cities. Ah some of them took up arms and started pot taking pot shots at the new settlers. Um you have clashes going back to the 1880's and 1890's.there are not that many of them um and they're sporadic but ah it grows more intense at the beginning of the 20th century as, as (Arabic) the idea of Hebrew labor becomes more and more established and the issue in the Jewish country and Palestine. Um but there are some people who are, who are you know take out their grievances in a, in a, in a violent way. But most of them drift to the cites and become the urban underclass. Some become successful you know doing something else.,INTERVIEWER:,And if it wasn't until 1948 that real clash began that the Zionist inaudible where the land took place what was, and the land ownership was minor in terms of geographic area, what was driving the clashes that existed already what was the basis of that?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:16:01:21>>>,Well the basis I mean land and population are, are two elements in the conflict from the beginning a hundred years ago. But the other element is political. The Zionist movement had a drive for sovereignty. And the Palestinians didn't want to be governed by a foreign minority what was until 1948 a foreign minority in their own land. So you had two conflicting political aspirations. One on the part of the Palestinians um for self rule and ultimately sovereignty. And one on the part of the the issue of the Jewish community in Palestine for self rule and ultimately sovereignty. So it was a political clash as well as a clash over control of the land and over demography to see who dominated the country in terms of numbers. ,INTERVIEWER:,This began even as early as the 1880's they were the clash was already,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:16:47:04>>>,Well ,INTERVIEWER:,Inaudible ,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:16:48:22>>>,In the 1880's there was no modern Zionist movement. You did not have an aspiration for sovereignty in the land until the first Zionist congress inaudible in 1897. So the Zionist movement as properly constituted doesn't begin until 100 and whatever it is now 6 years ago 5 years ago. Um but ah you already had clashes over the land going back to the 1880's and 1890's. As the Zionist movement develops its political aspirations as it becomes clear this is a movement determined to establish Jewish sovereignty in Palestine um the clash becomes more and more acute. First decade and a half of the 20th century under the ottoman's and then after the Balford declaration in 1917 even more explicit um under the British mandate.,INTERVIEWER:,What was the driving agenda of these Palestinian leadership at the time? Where they were there Palestinian people in the years leading up to well lead?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:17:42:12>>>,Palestinian people?,INTERVIEWER:,Were they lead well?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:17:44:15>>>,When when are you talking about I'm sorry?,INTERVIEWER:,Did they have leaders who were?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:17:46:28>>>,When what period are you talking about?,INTERVIEWER:,In the period let's say from the Balcor declaration to the state of Israel. ,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:17:52:10>>>,I would argue there weren't. I would argue that up to the 1948 the Palestinians were not terribly well lead. Um I would argue that the Palestinians were over matched in every respect not just though in terms of leadership. They were over matched in terms of their lack of international allies. Their lack of an understanding of the international situation. Ah their, their inability to develop the kind of level of, of national and popular mobilization that the Zionist movement um was able to provide. I mean remember most Jewish immigrants to Palestine were a sort of self selecting sample certainly until Hitler at which point people had absolutely no choice. Up until and certainly up until the United States changed its immigration laws sort of racist anti Semitic basis not just anti Semitic but the racist basis of American immigration laws of the early 20's kept people from eastern Europe from coming into this country. Most Jewish refugees most Jewish immigrants from Europe did not go to Palestine. A tiny miniscule fraction did. Most people voted with their feet and went to the United States or Argentina or Canada, Australia. And you have a population of many, many millions of people in this country and elsewhere whose ancestors came here voluntarily because this is where they wanted to be.,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:19:09:25>>>,A tiny minority came to Palestine um the Jewish population of Palestine in 1917, 1918 was maybe 60 thousand people. You had millions of Jews who had come to the United States. And that represented the proportion of people for whom Zionism was the priority and the proportion of people for whom Zionism was the priority and proportion of people for whom a better life was a priority. The point however is that those, those, those numbers which grew quite rapidly during the British mandate um were made up of people who wanted to be there. And who were in a sense a self selecting sample. They had the same political aspirations they were Zionists, they were ah politically aware. They were people who came from a developed political culture Europe and they were people who were in many cases in all cases involved in political parties Zionist political parties that helped to mobilize them and organize them. The Palestinians by com, and they were mainly literate they were, they were highly skilled. The Palestinian population was mainly illiterate until 1948. Ah majority of the Palestinians were illiterate until well after 1948 in fact. It's only in the decades since then the Palestinians developed their high rates of literacy.,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:20:18:27>>>,Um moreover the majority of the Palestinian population was rural. So you know to blame the leadership which I do I mean I've written about this many historians have shown how bad the leadership is, was at various crucial stages is to see only part of the picture. Um basically the Palestinians were over matched and what I stressed at the beginning external support is crucial. The British imposed a regimen in Palestine which was designated to implant the Zionist movement and to give it every possible advantage. Um Israelis forget this because the last few years of the British mandate involved a fierce clash with the British authorities but for decades from British conquest of Palestine in 1917 right through the 30's everything possible was done to facilitate ah the inaudible of the Zionist movement in Palestine. The Palestinians were prevented from having democratic institutions unlike every other Arab people under League of Nations mandate. The Syrians, the Lebanese, the Iraqis, the Jordanians all had parliaments all had governments all had self rule which the British and the French sometimes against their will were obliged by the league of nations confident to give the Palestinians a loan were prevented from having this because the Zionist would not allow a situation and the British agreed. Where and Arab majority would say ok fine half the majority rule we're the majority it's our country. ,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:21:36:24>>>,Um the Balfore declaration which is incorporated into the terms of the mandate was the basis for a highly discriminatory system which the British kept in place for the entirety of the mandate which enabled the issue of the Jewish community to reach a position where it could take over the country um starting in the 40's.,INTERVIEWER:,Even though it was a very distinct minority?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:21:58:04>>>,Well it was a growing minority I mean by 1948 it was a third of the population. You know in one year in 1935 as many, as many Jewish immigrants entered Palestine as the entire Jewish population of the country in 1920. I mean you had the gates of Palestine held wide open for decades. Ah they were then shut by the British for reasons that had to do with their own narrow calculations but until the, the late 30's you had as many immigrants as, as wanted to come or were able to come. And so from 60 thousand the issue to ah to close to 600 thousand by 1948 in fact over 600 thousand by 1948.,INTERVIEWER:,So the Palestinians didn't have any clout,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:22:40:21>>>,Internationally they certainly didn't no. ,INTERVIEWER:,Even though they were,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:22:44:14>>>,And they didn't have an understanding of the international situation I mean people like Hein Weitzman who was the first president of Israel and, and, and the leader of the Zionist movement through the 20's and the 30's was a man who was completely at home talking to Askwith, talking to Balfore, talking to lord Kersin, talking to Churchill. I mean he was one of them. The Palestinian leaders were not able in any way to reproduce this level of understanding of British politics, this level of involvement in British politics. This, this understanding of how to move support for them within the British political system and among the British elite um the Zionist movement being a European based movement um certainly through the 20's through the 30's was sup, superbly able to do that. ,INTERVIEWER:,But given the fact that even if it was one third of the population it still wasn't the majority. The partition plan seemed to be splitting it in two ,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:23:42:02>>>,Ahuh in fact the, the part of Palestinians allotted to the Jewish state was larger than that allotted to the Arab state. So a minority got most of the land under the partition plan. ,INTERVIEWER:,So it wasn't a fair plan?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:23:52:24>>>,Well I don't know if it was fair I mean no of course it wasn't fair I mean fair would have been self rule for the Arab majority with a Jewish minority having, minority national rights within an overall Arab state. Fair would have been two thirds of the country going to the Arabs and one third of the country going to the Jews if you had to have partition. But what, what's fair I mean ah in terms of Zionism, in terms of a certain point of view Palestinians have no rights at all. There is a point of view that argues that Arabs don't have any rights to Palestine or the Palestinians. There's a Palestinian point of view some Palestinians say the Zionist have no rights to Palestine as well. So what's fair? Um if you take the, the terms of the covalent of the League of Nations or if you take the charter of the United Nations the idea of self-determination the Palestinians had a right to sovereignty in their own land. What you then say about this Jewish nationality this, this becomes the population of Israel um is an entirely different question. Do they have rights of sovereignty too? Well if they do how do you then adjudicate those two competing rights? The United Nations ah general assembly decided to partition the country giving the larger share to the smaller group. ,INTERVIEWER:,You did say you blame the leaders also. Can you talk a little bit about that?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:25:07:19>>>,Sure. Um well one can blame the Palestinian leadership in the 20's and 30's for several things. The first I would argue would be a failure to mobilize the population sufficiently. To organize and mobilize the population. Um the way in which the Egyptian national movement or the way in which the Indian national movement mobilized people on the basis of the idea of one man one vote, the idea of democracy and representation as the lever with which to ah overcome colonialism was something that the Palestinian leadership never, never reached. It's a level they never reached. This would have been a much, much, much more um attractive approach both internationally and in Brit, in terms of British public opinion. And would have given the Palestinian national movement a great deal more power. But you were talking about people who essentially came from a narrow elite who themselves were not really particularly democratic in some in their inclinations many of them. Um who are in some cases aristocrats. I mean people from my own family people from others families um essentially thought of themselves as the natural rulers of this country and the kept the British naively, foolishly hoping that the British would see this and world turn from the Zionists to them and say oh we made a terrible mistake we can't give control of this country to these, these people this minority we're gonna give it to you the natural representatives of the majority.,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:26:35:26>>>,Of course that never happened. Um it was a foolish mistakes. Those were some of the worst mistakes that I think can be ascribed to that. ,INTERVIEWER:,Some of the leaders are portrayed as fundamentalists as opposed to nationalists inaudible Hussein is described as having at least in inaudible fundamentalist that his opposition to wasn't because of majority rule it was because of the general sort of Arab nationalists org fundamentalist. Not national fundamentalist bend against, against Jewish state inaudible,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:27:21:08>>>,I mean it's funny ------ has an extremely black place in ah in Zionist and Israeli historiography. Um in the work that I've done on him he comes out as a faithful servant of the British for two decades. Who was forced by public opinion um to become um the leader of a revolt which he didn't start um in the 30's and which he did his best to prevent from getting out of control but which ultimately carried him along to a point where the British had to um get rid of it. And I found documents in the French archives in research as recently as a year ago um which show him trying to get back into the good graces of the British in 1939 just before he had ends up fleeing to Baghdad and from there via Tehran and so forth to Berlin during world war II. So this picture of, of Hasjamine is one that's very much colored um I think by the amenity in which you know with which he's viewed by most Israelis most, most Zionist historians. Um and there's something to it I mean he was the arch proponent of the Palestinian nationalism. Um the idea that he was a Muslim fundamentalist I find a little hard to accept. Um he was an, a nationalist in his youth. He supported Syrian Arab nationalist movement. He had um was a supporter of Fisa and Damascus during the short period of Arab statehood in Damascus in 19 18 to 1920. Um and he was a sort of latecomer to religious hierarchy.,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:28:56:18>>>,Ah imposed as mufti by the British for their own reasons. He was by far the least qualified of the candidates for the position of mufti. ,INTERVIEWER:,What was the affect of Arab nationalism on this conflict? Was early internationalism influential in the Palestinian inaudible or was it a counter?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:29:23:11>>>,Well it, it played several roles. Arab nationalism, Arab nationalism played several roles in the development of Palestinian identity. I mean Palestinians had always thought of themselves as Arabs. They spoke Arabic took pride in their Arabic heritage. Um their sense is a sense of Arab lineage that many people have, many families, many, many groups in Palestinian society have always had. This became more and more of a national feeling in the early 20th century late 19th early 20th century. Um and it eventually developed into an important element in Palestinian nationalism. One of the things I argue in a book I wrote a few years ago on Palestinian identity it's titled Palestinian Identity is that that identity is composed of many elements one of which is Arab nationalism. Um and it's clear that for Palestinians their connections to the Arab world have always been important. Um it's also true that Arabs other Arabs have always felt sympathetic to the Palestinians. I mean you go back to the period before World War I and you see an enormous resonance to the Palestine issue in the press of Lebanon, Syria, Egypt.,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:30:30:22>>>,Um and it's mainly the Arab nationalist papers which are the most sympathetic to the Palestinians which, which carry these grievances and that continues to be true in the, in the inter war period and even afterwards. I mean Arab nationalism has always have some kind of connection with Palestinian nationalism. This is one reason that Arab nationalism is regarded with such rep--- and such ah such disapproval by peopel who are sympathetic to Zionism because Arab nationalism has always been identified with, with opposition to Zionism.,INTERVIEWER:,One Israeli enthusiast to Zionism said what is everyone complaining about when Israel when the Zionists came the land blossomed, there was work opportunity there was more Arab immigration after that. We made it into a garden inaudible and we actually made things better we made hard relations better off by coming in and developing the land or whatever.,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:31:25:15>>>,I think that's a naïve and foolish it's a naïve and foolish view to say that Zionism made the country better off. Zionism was aspired to take over the country. To turn an Arab country into a Jewish country. To make Palestine as Jewish as England is English as one early Zionist leader said. The idea that the Palestinians would willingly acquiesce in the seizure of their country is, is mind boggling. Um obviously the economy of Palestine improved enormously during the 20's and the 30's. Most of that improvement went into the Jewish controlled segregated sector of the economy. Um but there was a great improvement in the Arab economy. It's interesting however to compare how Palestine the Arab population of Palestine changed was transformed with how the populations of Lebanon and Syria and Egypt and Jordan were changed. Um in many cases those countries also ah experienced economic growth in the, in the same period. Um and in any case I think that completely misses the point. Firstly the country was not desolate ah before Zionism arrived. Secondly um the vast amounts of capital that were invested by the Zionist enterprise had a an enormous effect there's no question but it had an effect almost entirely on the Jewish population.,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:32:41:07>>>,This was money spent on Jews for Jews for the establishment of a Jewish national home which was to develop into a Jewish state in which Jews would have sovereignty and Arabs would be at best second class citizens if they were not in the words of Hertzel spirited across the frontiers. So the idea that Jews would take the place of Arabs as lords of this land was adherent in modern political Zionism. And the idea that Palestinians should acquiesce in this because the standard of living was improving is ridiculous to say the least. It ignores the core issue which is who was gonna control. And Zionism was not a movement whereby Jews came to a country to live as helots or second class citizens or a minority under somebody else. They already had that in Russia. They already had that wherever they were fleeing from. They already had persecution and, and, and, and ah the hostility of a majority. Why would they come to Palestine for that? They were coming to Palestine to take over the country to turn it into a Jewish state. And the fact that this was crystal clear to the Palestinians who read what was said at Zionist congresses cause it was translated in their papers as early as the first decade of the 20th century ah is to show contempt for the Arabs. It's to assume that they're stupid and ignorant and that is something that is part of the colonial mentality that unfortunately ah was present in the Zionist enterprise in its earliest stages.,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:33:56:24>>>,This was self consciously and proudly a colonial movement. They talked about colonies. They talked about themselves as part of a European effort to civilize this backwards ignorant part of the world. This was part of the I mean read Hertzel go back and read dir instant The Jewish State. Go back and read the earliest um Zionist writings. There is that colonialist contempt for the native. It's there in everything. And the people who object people like --- were a minority. People who said you can't you can't take this attitude these people have something to say and we have to pay attention to them. There was always that strand in Zionism but it's very important to remember that it was a minority strand and for most people first of all Jewish rights had prominent had, had preeminence. And secondly um these backwards locals um took second place um to this enterprise that the science movement was dedicated to, to furthering. ,INTERVIEWER:,Can you describe the impact of terrorists the Lehigh gang,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:34:58:23>>>,Lehee ,INTERVIEWER:,Sorry Lehee them and the stern gang and all that?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:35:05:29>>>,Well, well when talk about um terrorist movements like the gang and the Sterngay um we're talking about an episode in modern Zionist history that a lot of people would prefer to forget. Um the people who pioneered the car bomb, the people who used political assignation assonated Count Bernadot assonated the UN mediator in Palestine in 1948. Assonated Lord Moyd ah in Cairo um were members of these groups. Um they um they had an impact. Um I would argue that the mainstream Zionist movement in some ways used them but in some ways represented by Engrain and, and the Mapai the labor Zionist majority of the issue both used these people and at the same time um regarded them with some distain. Um the, the majority movement was much more prag, pragmatic than these extreme movements which, which deployed terror. Um and it should also be said that these some of these means like massacres and expulsions of people in the 1948 war were not confined to these extreme terrorist groups. In other words some massacres like --- Hussein were carried out by the Argod. But others were carried out by the Haganon or later on by the Israeli army. And so I suppose the point should be made that while certain kinds of terrorism which were used by extreme groups were looked upon with horror by everybody in the Zionist movement.,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:36:47:04>>>,Other, other forms of violence against civilians um were a vital tool in the expulsion of the majority of the Palestinians who lived in Palestine in 1948 from their homes and lands.,INTERVIEWER:,Was there you think was there a way in which the two groups might have nonetheless developed an understanding before the state and found a solution that seemed to respect each other and come to a different,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:37:16:07>>>,I have to say I've thought about this question was there some way for the two people to come to an agreement um before 1948. And I think the only thing that could have changed that would have been had Hitler not come to power. Once Hitler came to power um all of the all of the elements were there for ah the Zionist movement to win. Paradoxically the greatest enemy of the Jewish people who destroyed millions of Jews in the Europe um created a dynamic that made the victory of Zionism the absolute victory of Zionism um almost irreversible. Before that in the 20's it might have been possible given the slow rate of immigration especially at the end of the 20's and the early 30's of Jewish immigration to Palestine. Given the awareness of the British with the whole enterprise. Given the weakness of the Arab leadership it might have been possible for a compromise to be worked out but once Hitler came to power once that flood of refugees came out of Europe, once in a sense nazism had proven the truth of some of the things that Zionism had always argued that it was impossible for Jews to live in Europe. I mean many, many Jews don't believe that to this day but Nazism sort of proved certain things that Zionist had always been arguing and gave Zionism a kind of force that was almost irresistible. It not only sent hundreds of thousands of people to Palestine I mean the population increased by over let's see if I can remember the numbers something like 150 thousand people in only a few years from the early 30's till the end of the 30's.,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:38:51:08>>>,This is a direct result of the raise of Hitler to power. And the, the extra ordinary persecution that was taking place not just in Germany but in other parts of Eastern Europe. Once that had happened I think that the rest was pretty much known.,INTERVIEWER:,Why are countries why is Iraq and Yemen these are no great friends of the Palestinians inaudible Iraq and I don't Saudi Arabia whoever it was what were they doing getting involved in the 48 war? Why were they so was it out of sympathy for their Palestinian brothers? Why did this become a Middle Eastern War?,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:39:29:02>>>,Well I mean you have to go back to what I talked about earlier the extra ordinary resonance of the Palestine question and the Arab quest a hun, 80 or 90 or 75 years ago to understand why the Arab countries got involved in 1948. In other words you had public opinion deeply engaged with this issue in the, in the tens and the twenties of the last century. 1912 I can show you a score of editorials about the Palestinians, Zionism ah in 1913 in 1918 in 1920. Um public opinion was already deeply engaged all over the Arab world by this question 80 years ago, 75 years ago, 60 years ago. So this is the background to the involvement of the Arab states in 1948. Now how deeply engaged did the Arab governments get not very. You mentioned Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Saudi Arabia and Yemen didn't have armies they couldn't send armies to Palestine they didn't have an army. When I say a army I mean airplanes, I mean trucks, I mean logistics, I mean a staff they didn't have those things. They had levies to tribal levies which couldn't be moved and weren't moved and never participated. So this myth of 8, 6, 9, 11 Arab armies rolling across the frontiers of Palestine is no more than a myth. Um several Arab armies played crucial roles in the 1948 war the Egyptian, the Jordanian and the Iraqi army played crucial roles in the 48 war.,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:40:55:15>>>,The Syrian army also played a role much less important. Lebanese army never crossed the frontier nobody else was involved. So Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Yemen you might as well not talk about them. Yes the governments took a stand yes the governments were, were, were ah quite vocal in protesting in what was happening but the key, the key actors on the ground in the 1948 war were the 3 armies I first mentioned the Egyptian, the Jordanian and the Iraqi.,INTERVIEWER:,And the reason you're saying is to be democratic,DR RASHID KHALIDI,01:41:26:03>>>,No. No I'm not saying that it was democratic it was because of democracy that these governments were involved I'm saying public opinion forced them to take a stand. In the case of Egypt for example um the government was very much opposed to intervening in Palestine right up to May 15th. The king however ah taking his cue from public opinion decided to embarrass his own government king of and basically pushed Egypt into a war that the Egyptian general staff was unready for, did not want to fight and the Egyptian government of the day was very unhappy about. So that's one example. In another case Jordan were public opinion was probably less important it was
[Jean-Pierre Raffarin]
A man dressed in Sherlock Holmes' style attire rides a vintage bicycle.
Dog playing on robot vacuum cleaner
Dog playing on robot vacuum cleaner
Telethon: pediatric rehabilitation service
Centre Est
Various Subjects
DN-B-327 Beta SP; NET-622 Beta SP (at 01:30:00:00); DigiBeta
Exercise on the Shuttle
Astronaut Roy Bridges does some fake press ups on the Shuttle's mid deck. At the end he shows that he can do them without his arms and only using his legs! He then fools around floating up and down the deck bashing his head into one end. Date recorded: 1985-07-29 to 1985-08-06
b&w newsreel - title card reads Winter Bathing - American Mutoscope and Biograph Company 1905 - men in bowler hats and coats walk past building - men in shorts / bathing suits exercise in freezing weather - men ice skate - some barefoot and in shorts run around on ice - men play handball - snow on ground - men in shorts run over chunks of ice and dive into freezing cold water - polar bear club - funny
Malaysia Iran - Iran's president sees no possibility of war with US or Israel
NAME: MAL IRAN 20080708Ix TAPE: EF08/0701 IN_TIME: 10:37:54:24 DURATION: 00:00:45:22 SOURCES: IRINN DATELINE: Kuala Lumpur, 8 July 2008 RESTRICTIONS: No Access Iran SHOTLIST: 1. Wide of Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Iranian delegation at news conference at the developing eight Islamic countries summit 2. Wide of media and attendants 3. SOUNDBITE (Farsi) Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Iranian President: ++Interrupted by translator's voice++ "This regime (Israel) is doomed to destruction innately and does not need the Iranian nation's act." 4. Wide of Ahmadinejad and his delegation at podium 5. SOUNDBITE (Farsi) Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, Iranian President: "I assure you that there wont be any war. It is mainly a propaganda which as I previously said is a repeated, funny scenario." 6. Ahmadinejad and Iranian delegation leaving news conference as attendants applauding STORYLINE The Iranian president said on Tuesday that he does not see the possibility of a war with the United States or Israel, dismissing perceived military threats by the two countries as a "funny scenario." President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who was addressing a news conference during a visit to Malaysia for the summit of developing Muslim nations, also said he predicted Israel's "regime" would collapse without the need for any Iranian action. "I assure you that there wont be any war. It is mainly a propaganda which as I previously said is a repeated, funny scenario." Ahmadinejad's comments came a day after Iran's Revolutionary Guards said the country would retaliate against any military strike by targeting Tel Aviv and U.S. warships in the Gulf. Iranian officials have been issuing a mix of conciliatory and bellicose statements in recent weeks about the possibility of a clash with the U.S. and Israel. Ahmadinejad has said Iran has the right to defend itself. Asked to clarify his previous calls for the destruction of Israel, Ahmadinejad said he has nothing against Jews but only against the "Zionists" who rule Israel. Known for vitriolic anti-Israeli rhetoric, Ahmadinejad prompted international controversy when he called in 2005 for the Jewish state to be "wiped off the map." For the few couple of years Iran has emphasised its right to have a nuclear program, which is at the heart of its dispute with the West. The Islamic country insists its nuclear program is only for peaceful purposes, such as energy production. But the US administration believes it is for making nuclear weapons. Although Washington says it prefers a diplomatic resolution to the standoff, the US and Israel have not ruled out a military option. Israel's military sent warplanes over the eastern Mediterranean for a large military exercise in June that US officials described as a possible rehearsal for a strike on Iran's nuclear facilities.
TALENT CLEARED, YOUNG WOMEN EXERCISING IN UPSCALE HOMES, LOOKING IN MIRROR ; INT MS woman exercising using one of those wheel gadgets (like she's playing 'wheelbarrow'), comic relief- woman collapses ;INT African American woman lifting dumbbells, barbells, stops & looks tired, sits down on bench exhausted; INT woman following exercise video on tv, tai bo or something, using elastic band, details- thighs, face & hands, waist & boobs ;INT Tilt-U woman admiring herself in mirror. Artsy LS thru corridor, woman exercising with elastic band, closer shots; INT different woman exercising in equally upscale home (these exercises haven't been approved for poor people) ;INT Yes there is a fire in the fireplace in the BG! Waist, legs, butt, thighs of woman exercising ;INT woman wearing bikini admiring herself in mirror (an icky bikini that only people with that kind of figure get away with) ;Funny in-camera editing- goes from tall blonde woman in bikini to shorter blonde woman in panties and tank top looking in mirror ;INT Brunette woman wearing bikini looking at herself in mirror. Blonde woman again, wearing spandex exercise outfit ;Now it's the shorter blonde woman modeling a similar sort of outfit...Brunette woman doing same; Woman wearing evening dress looking in mirror. Woman modeling black halter top & satin pants. Woman modeling mini-dress; Woman wearing panties & tank top, pan legs and torso to smiling happy face...last of the mirror shots; Black woman stands on scale, then does a happy dance. CU feet stepping on & off scale, MS woman smiling in relief; MS white woman standing on scale, making an unfathomable face, maybe disappointment, maybe surprise; CU feet stepping on & off scale. Woman doing silly exercise in front of big tv set, exercise routine ;