You are great: [September 15, 2022 show]
Grand Est
India Kashmir March
India Kashmir March
News Clip: Academy Awards
Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story.
Indira Ghandi as Prime Minister of India. Indians carry signs and banners in a demonstration. A speech by Indira Ghandi. A funeral procession in the streets of India.
DN-35 1 inch
Ghandi's Scant Garb Bars Papal Audience, Honored By Cadets
Various Subjects
Mahatma, The Immortal
Shot of huge crowd at New Delhi station waiting for ashes of Ghandi to arrive, shots of thousands lining streets waiting for train to pass so they can pay respects to "their father". CS of Pandit Nehru with officials at station, Indian troops parading through streets in funeral procession, funeral carriage pulled by white horses. LS of aeroplanes, Piper Cub, flying over crowd, shovering flowers on the procession. Shots of final resting place of Ghandi. Shots of boats on river, carrying mourners. Shots of great crowds on top of buildings, of policeman directing crowds, of palace where ashes of Ghandi will rest. LS of thousands on steps of town hall in Bombay where ashes will be resting. Shot of procession leaving town hall, marching along with Ghandi's ashes. Shots of masses of crowd, singing Ghandi's favorite hymn. Several shots of urn in which Ghandi is contained as ashes. More shots of processions in Indian cities, mourning their beloved. Shot of ceremony of immersing Ghandi's ashes in the sea, Indian people touching water trying to get some of Ghandi's ashes.
Daughters of US Hindu leader talk to reporter in NY City
Crisis Over Kashmir
Crisis Over Kashmir. The History of Kashmir. 1960s, Kashmir, Indian Subcontinent, boats on river, children paddling boat, street scenes, people in traditional clothing, vendor selling produce, artisan, paintings of British East India Company opening up trade with India in 1609, paintings of conflict between India and Britain, painting of 1858 British government taking power from the East India Company and viceroys, King George and Queen Mary visiting India in 1911, portrait photographs of Mahatma Gandhi, Gandhi surrounded by crowds of worshippers, non-cooperation movement, spinning wheel, Salt March, villagers collecting salt from sea, Ghandi and disciples imprisoned, Jawaharlal Nehru imprisoned, Ghandi fasting, independence nears for India in 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru meeting with British officials and agreeing on partition of colonial India into Pakistan and India, border province residents including women in burqas / burkas voting, August 15 1947, India Independence Day, crowds rejoicing on street, Jawaharlal Nehru climbing out of window and speaking to crowd about Kashmir, Muhammad Ali Jinnah shaking hands and waving to onlookers, British ship departing, people waving, violence between Hindus and Muslims / India and Pakistan, fire in building, wounded people, corpses, 1948, Paris, Palais de Chaillot, United Nations Security Council meeting, United Nations Security Council draws ceasefire line dividing Kashmir, United Nations emblem, violence between India and Pakistan on ceasefire line, building ruins from violence, 1965, armed Pakistani guerrillas captured, civilians crying, newspaper front pages about India / Pakistan conflict, Lal Bahadur Shastri putting hands together in prayer and sitting down in chair, Pakistani and Indian soldiers fighting in Kashmir, ruins, refugees fleeing, Manhattan, New York City, United Nations Headquarters, United Nations Security Council meeting, Ambassador Arthur Goldberg addressing delegates, delegates of India, Pakistan and United Kingdom speaking, council voting on immediate ceasefire and visit of U Thant, U Thant deplaning and visiting Indian Subcontinent, United Nations flag outside headquarters, United Nations Headquarters General Assembly Lobby, Foucault Pendulum, sunset / sunrise over Manhattan skyline
NEWSFEED: 5/13/04 DONALD RUMSFELD GIVES SPEECH TO TROOPS IN IRAQ, AIDS RELIEF AFRICAN CHILDREN, INDIAN ELECTION, SONIA GHANDI;INT Donald Rumsfeld gives speech to soldiers in Iraq, reassuring troops after abuse charges;INT Rummy talks a bit about the abuse charges, claims he no longer reads newspapers to cheers from crowd; INT Rumsfeld completes speech to applause, z-out as troops give him a standing ovation; INT Gen. Dick Meyers gives speech to the crowd; INT Rummy and Meyers take questions from soldiers, one soldier asks when new equipment will arrive; INT Q&A continues w/Rumsfeld and Meyers;INT Gen. Sanchez takes a few questions, Rumsfeld then talks about Iraqis playing in the Olympics; INT Gen. Meyers talks about new brigades, Rummy wraps things up, crowd gives them a standing ovation; DX EXT lots of Indian men celebrate in street, dancing, throwing firecrackers in street, T/H Indian politician; INT many Indians counting votes, peds watch sign waiting for election results; DX EXT crowds cheer Sonia Ghandi, EXT office bldg, INT lots of people typing on computer; DX EXT man lights huge set of firecrackers in celebration; DX EXT African boy looks @ camera, lots of black kids staring from window, milk poured in cup kids drink; DX ET T/H man talks about giving aid to the kids, tractor in field, farmers in African field, kids walk in field; DX EXT kids cheer, scream for camera, INT conference regarding Africa takes place in Italy (in Italian); INT man talks about AIDS in Africa; DX EXT Sonia Ghandi speaks to press about becoming Prime Minister of India, crowd celebrates;
A statue of Mahatma Ghandi honors India's spiritual leader.
Interview with Ahmed Akbar pt 1
Interview with Ahmed Akbar, chairman Islamic studies, American University. References to Islam and Christian and Jewish faiths.,INTERVIEWER:,For technical purposes could you say your name and spell it?,AHMED AKBAR,01:00:14:20>>>,A-K-B-A-R-A-H-M-E-D Akbar Ahmed I'm the chair of Islamic studies at American university.,INTERVIEWER:,What would you say is one of the greatest misconceptions that the west has about Islam and the Islamic world?,AHMED AKBAR,01:41:40:20>>>,There are many misconceptions about Islam and the Islam world. Number one that Islam is a religion of violence. Number two that Islam subjecticates (sp?) women. Number three that Islam is a religion that hates Jews and Christians. It's innate hostility to these religions in particular. That Islam is set on a course to create anarchy and disorder in the world. In fact all of these are answered in the Koran itself and in the example in he prophet of Islam INAUDIBLE Islamic history. ,INTERVIEWER:,Can you tell us a little about the history the golden age of Islam I'm thinking before the crusades before the part that we studied what was the golden age?,AHMED AKBAR,01:42:30:07>>>,The golden age of Islam is ah for me it's symbolized by the period in Spain what is called Islamic Spain. And it's the golden age because that in a sense really translates the best features of Islamic history Islamic theology if you'd like. You have Jews and Christians living together and creating which one of the richest civilizations in world history. So you have art, you have architecture you have INAUDIBLE free flow of ideas and above all you have a genuine intellectual synthesis taking place between these great world religions and that is an almost unique example of great civilizations INAUDIBLE together and that is Islamic civilization at its best.,INTERVIEWER:,Dr. Lewis has said that Islam inevitability would clash with Christianity because there are two universalistic concepts competing for the one true word. And so the clash between them is inevitable.,AHMED AKBAR,01:43:32:05>>>,Both ah professor Bernard Lewis who is a colleague of mine a distinguished colleague and friend from Princeton university INAUDIBLE is a Huntington a Harvard again I've been to Harvard. Both of them of course have tropicated(? sp) and come to embody what is called the clash of civilizations. I don't agree with this at all. On the contrary to what professor Bernard Lewis says that Islam and Christianity are inherently on a conflict path a path of confrontation. Now this is not correct because in fact Judaism, Christianity and Islam are all there INAUDIBLE. All three believe the essentially in the same god, essentially in the same structure that an indivisible INAUDIBLE god up there and we on earth here and a certain accountability out of this life so a kind of ledger while being on earth do good avoiding evil the basic ten commandments. And yet if you begin to think in terms of confrontation and a lot of the history between these civilizations is confrontation over history and we have the crusades, we have the era of the colonize colonization and the present phase of history in which there is a clash forming between Islam and the west. Then we may be tempted to go along with what professor Lewis is saying.,AHMED AKBAR,01:44:49:21>>>,But if you step back and look at the world through the lens of the Abrahamic INAUDIBLE then I think what is common between these three fates is much stronger, much more durable and permanent than what is dissimilar between these three fates.,INTERVIEWER:,Could you maybe elaborate on those, those elements those uniting elements?,AHMED AKBAR,01:45:11:19>>>,One of the great uniting elements in the three fields is Abraham himself the great prophet the great patriarch the great symbol of each faith in turn. Now what Jews and Christians who says prayers is supposed say prayers five times a day he or she prays to and blesses not only Abraham but also the descendants of Abraham. Now who are the descendants if not the Jews and indeed the Christians? And yet people are not aware of this. Abraham has two sons as we all know. For me as a Muslim from south Asia I don't see the sons in rivalry and some people interpret the rivalry between the Jews and the Muslims in the middle east as a kind of tribal conflict between descendants of these sons. I see both sons as sons who are highly revert highly respected in history. Sons of the great patriarch the great prophet Abraham. I see them as a unifying factor not as a divisive factor.,AHMED AKBAR,01:46:11:29>>>,So I really think that there's a great deal of ignorance about Islam and a great need to understand and study Islam. ,INTERVIEWER:,You are an observant Muslim?,AHMED AKBAR,01:46:21:28>>>,Yes I am an observant Muslim. I am an observant Muslim I am I have a south Asian background. I am not a convert my parents are not converts we go back centuries in terms of our Islam. I have the blood of the prophet in me so therefore we go back a long, long way.,INTERVIEWER:,I have a vague knowledge of we hear echoes of just after the prophet when Islam was credited with having originated some of the greatest in innovations, medicine, mathematics can you tell us just in a summary way for a lay person about that time period?,AHMED AKBAR,01:46:56:18>>>,I would say that the great days of Islam and there's a correlation here the great days of Islam are the great days of Islamic scholarship and Islamic tolerance. So when Islamic spans from the Arabian peninsula and really explodes into what is now the Middle East north Africa and the east towards India the subcontinent Islam attracts people because it's bringing a new way of life. It is bringing respect for knowledge, other people other tribes other cultures and above all it is encouraging the quest for knowledge. People don't know but in the Koran the holy book of the Muslims the word knowledge which is ilm in Arabic is used more often than any other word except the word for god. So god really is emphasizing knowledge, knowledge and knowledge. So there's a certain correlation and when Islam or Muslims begin to loose the respect for knowledge the respect for learning you being to see the downfall. And what professor Bernard Lewis and others like him talk about really in terms of the downfall of Islam he's really talking about the downfall in the last two or three centuries when Muslims began to loose the vitality and the respect for knowledge. ,AHMED AKBAR,01:18:10:11>>>,And if you again do a correlation and you look at the world today in the 21st century you look around you and you ask yourself where are the noble prize winners where are the great intellectual scholars and writers and scientists mathematicians and so on you could find them largely in the west even mostly in the United States of American. So here again you have a correlation you are not going to find them in the Muslim world. Yet in Spain a thousand years ago there were more books in Cordoba in Spain than the rest of Europe put together. Now that's a remarkable static. More books in one city in Muslim Spain than the rest of Europe put together. Today you may have this in reverse. You may have more books in the library at Princeton or Harvard compared to maybe a whole country in the Muslim world. So you are seeing a certain crisis within Islamic society in terms of itself in terms of what it needs to be doing. In terms of what Muslim society needs to be doing to rediscover it's own essential features.,INTERVIEWER:,So what happened what is that went downhill?,AHMED AKBAR,01:49:20:06>>>,I won't agree with the professor Bernard Lewis he said that Islam emerged and went up and then sort of went down INAUDIBLE simplistic linear view of um history. He is a historian and a very distinguished historian he has a point of view. Mine is more anthropological ah perspective of, of society which is that societies have their rhythms the rise and fall that societies beginning to come together under a certain kind of leadership under certain conditions social economic conditions. For instance when professor Lewis talks about the decline of Islam in the 19th century and he says that's it the Islamic history is over. To me in south Asia Islamic history is just beginning. This is where in the middle of the 19th century you have this ah movement such as INAUDIBLE you have universities you have intellectual books being produced, thesis being produced. You have the whole Pakistan movement lead by INAUDIBLE one of the most extraordinary figures of the 20th century. A man modern Muslims democratic person who believes in human rights, women's rights, minority rights there is a great deal of vitality in that part of the world. So I just don't see the downfall in fact on the contrary I see a complete renaissance taking place.,AHMED AKBAR,01:50:39:29>>>,And again over the last few decades in south Asia we see this rhythm as if we're going up and down once again we have a degeneration one part of south Asia reborn in another part. So I would see it more in terms of that cycle rather than this up and down pieces of history.,INTERVIEWER:,Is there anything that Muslims that some Muslims might be doing to contribute to the misinterpretation that people in the west have?,AHMED AKBAR,01:51:08:16>>>,I think Muslims are doing a lot to contribute to this negative image of Islam in the west and the world in general. And one of them is to project the idea that Islam is religion of violence. For instance poeple like Soma Bin Laden talk about violence as not only a means but the end itself. Soma Bin Laden clearly talks about he writes about we've seen this American television the enemy being the Jews and the Christians. I would like to ask him is that is correct then how are the Jews and the Christians in Koran in the holy book also addressed as people of the book as people who are kin. So for me again as a Muslim when I look at the tragedy of middle East and I look at the killings and the senseless violence in the Middle East and I look at a mother crying for her child I don't ask is she Jewish is Muslim. If she's Muslim maybe I should feel more sorrow for her. I just look at this and I see this as a great human tragedy. And I see this as a particularly great tragedy as a child of Abraham that two people belonging to the same family the abrahamic family are locked in this senseless cycle of violence.,AHMED AKBAR,01:52:18:27>>>,So I would say that Muslims themselves need to step back I would say Jews have to step back and really look at themselves in terms of, in terms of a common tradition this is the Abrahamic tradition.,INTERVIEWER:,How has this I would say miss misrepresentative Bin Ladenistic perspective has it affected the Palestinian Israeli conflict and if so how?,AHMED AKBAR,01:52:44:18>>>,The Palestinian Israeli conflict has a INAUDIBLE throughout the Muslim. It is important to understand this from Nigeria to Morocco to Indonesia central Asia wherever Muslims live there is a great deal of emotion attached to this particular problem for several reasons. First of all most Muslims are aware that the Jews have been part of the history of Islam that there've been large periods of Muslim history where Jews and Muslims have lived together as good neighbors. There've been centuries of this. Indeed when the Jews and Muslims explained from Muslim Spain from Iberia and when the Jews were asked where would you like to migrate to they said to a Muslim land. Now that is the bottom line that is a vote of confidence. It is the same time when they were being prosecuted in other parts of Europe. So people are aware of this. And then we have the history of the Middle East and in the last half century. ,AHMED AKBAR,01:53:41:27>>>,And we have to ask our self what is going on. The impact of that on the Muslim world is that they see the Palestinians in a hopeless situation where they're being killed where they are their houses are being blown up and there seems to be no solution. There seems to be a kind of despair. So I believe that that's a very important problem to be solved and both sides both the Jews and the Muslims have to resolve that issue because that is I would say poisoning the atmosphere in INAUDIBLE. Then of course you have the question of Jerusalem Jerusalem is a holy city not only for Jews not only for Christians but also for Muslims and that must be respected by anyone who's controlling Jerusalem.,AHMED AKBAR,01:54:24:03>>>,Historically whenever Muslims have taken Jerusalem as for instance in the time of INAUDIBLE the second INAUDIBLE for Islam or in the time of Salada(?) the great ah great Muslim ruler during the time of the crusades. One of the first acts that they passed was to allow Jews back to Jerusalem why because Jews were always considered people of the book. They were like kin they were part of the same family. So how could it be that they were not allowed to come back to their own place of worship. This will happen again and again in history. So I believe that there is a lot in our history in our common history which can inspire us to look at what's happening in the Middle East today which is such a tragic ah situation.,INTERVIEWER:,INAUDIBLE this interpretation which we are exposed to of Hamas with a charter that speaks of Jews not as people of the book but such derogatory terms the end of days the rocks will cry out all this violent imagery and people INAUDIBLE,AHMED AKBAR,01:55:23:27>>>,The images of Islam which are projected particularly in the west are violent people are people with ah nothing but blood on their hands and blood on their minds. It is not correct at all. It is I would say a desperation and an interpretation of Islam that is really a translation of a certain desperation in a political situation. You must remember that it is not only Hamas it is not only the Islamic parties who interpret Islam there are other political leaders who have led Islamic movement led them very successfully and led them to triumph. Again I go back to the example of INAUDIBLE. Gena led in the 1930's what was probably the most important political movement of the 20th century because this was the one movement that resulted in the creation of an entire country which was then in 1947 the largest Muslim nation on earth Pakistan in 1947. And yet Gena led it within the constitution. He did not believe in killing people he did not believe in ordering suicide bombers, he did not believe in even challenging the law so he never ever went to jail. And in fact his critics would tell him this they would remind him they would say Handy Mahatma Ghandi your political rival has been to jail sir why don't you go to jail. And he would say my part is different I will fight for Pakistan but I will fight for Pakistan within the law. ,AHMED AKBAR,01:56:53:02>>>,So you have example like Gena in the Muslim world. And what we have to see really for, for Muslims and the great challenge Muslims face is how are we able to revive the traditional of leaders like Gena. Because if leaders like Gena are not going to lead the Muslim world in the 21st century then not only the Muslim world is in trouble but the rest of the world is in trouble because you're dealing with a population that is 1.3 billion and growing. You're dealing with a civilization that is 56, 57 nations in the world and one of them nuclear for the time being. So what you have is a situation where you have a volatile mass of people and a lot will depend on who leads them. And who's leading them at the moment are people who are desperate. They're caught up in a desperate situation so their responses are desperate. They're not responding with any measured sense of values or compassion because all around them they're seeing death and destruction. And therefore they're responding as people who are absolutely with their backs against the wall.,AHMED AKBAR,01:57:59:12>>>,I therefore go back again and again to the examples of Islam and what Islam teaches. The prophet of Islam if you go back to the 7th century and for Muslims that is the model of Islam that is ultimately supreme that trumps everything else. You go back to the example of the prophet who again and again and again introduce the notion of compassion, compassion and compassion. Whatever the provocation in fact the notion of jihad can only be applied in self defense. And the notion of jihad is only to be defined the greater jihad in terms of elevating your own individual self or soul or spiritual being INAUDIBLE. It isn't to be translated in terms of military interaction. So some of these debates or these definitions need to be brought up not only for the west but also for Muslims. ,INTERVIEWER:,How has religion INAUDIBLE also of dialogue?,AHMED AKBAR,01:58:59:17>>>,Religion has in the 21st century become an instrument of confrontation and violence. We're seeing too much conflict and we're seeing too much confrontation based on religion. A loose translation in the Balkans you have christens nailing Muslims and ah on crosses and using that as a pretext to explain hatred of the Islamic faith. You have Jews and Muslims fighting in the Middle East you have Hindus and Muslims fighting in south Asia. Sorry. So you have a confrontation taking place which on one level seems to be religious. At the same time religion provides us a very important source of dialogue. I've been involved in dialogue with some very eminent people of the Abrahamic faith. Was showing that as opposed to conflict or the confrontation or the clash of civilizations you also have healthy dialogue possible and taking place. A year back late in 2002 rabbi Rustic of the Washington Hebrew congregation organized and launched what he called the first Abraham summit. Now he invited the bishop bishop John Chin with the national cathedral here in Washington. He invited me. He invited Bruce Lustic the author or Abraham ah best selling book written on the prophet Abraham. And he launched the first Abraham summit which in turn and in time became a very popular movement almost so that in June when we had a similar panel ah the Abrahamic panel at the national press club in Washington DC this time because early on people were very skeptical about this and where this was going this time at the national press club a completely sold out event standing room only and a lot of people turned out.,AHMED AKBAR,02:00:54:03>>>,We would really like to see much more of this taking place. We would like to see this happening in public. We would like to see this very visible and we have so much in common. We have so much in common. Now for me this becomes a very critical echo of the Abrahamic refrain that there is a great deal that is different between these faiths. Even within the faiths there's so much that is different. And yet in essence there is so much that is common. ,INTERVIEWER:,If you could from the perspective of someone who has seen both different approaches if you address both peoples in the Palestine Israel conflict ah looking back on history tell them what wrong turns they made and what right turns they should have made.,AHMED AKBAR,02:01:42:02>>>,I think that both the Israelis and the Palestinians made a great number of mistakes INAUDIBLE Israel back to 1948. I think that the assumptions of the Israelis in the early days were very different from what they are now. The assumptions of the Palestinians were very different then 50 years ago as they are now. Both in a sense were two different peoples two different civilizations looking at each other with incomprehension. The Israelis were arriving largely from Europe with very European ideas with very European standards the European way of looking at the world. And what they were seeing were religious they were seeing backward religious poor people and they're treated by the sinners with a great deal of contempt. So there was really no attempt and even understanding the local people there and that set the tone over the next few decades. So you're really seeing two different people talking passed each other.,AHMED AKBAR,02:02:41:05>>>,As for the Palestinians they were looking at the Israelis as complete foreigners as strangers as invaders and occupiers and therefore not even prepared to conceive that essentially these were kin. That essentially these were people of the Abrahamic faiths and that essentially they had a right to the land because they had been there many of the Jews had been living there before the creation of Israel and that the links were very strong they were theological the arguments on behave of Israel and the Jewish community are very strong arguments. So had the Palestinians and the Arabs responded with more generosity, with more understanding rather than launching wars you would then again have some hope of accommodation. Earlier on if there had been that kind of accommodation you may well have seen two states two different states immerging two neighbors different neighbors but possibly living together with some understanding maybe even some harmony.,AHMED AKBAR,02:03:41:13>>>,But the way the um the structure was created right from the start you had total hostility. So it became a zero sum situation. Israel had to be wiped off the face of the earth it had to be wiped off the map as far as the Arabs were concerned and the Arabs had to be removed and their villages blown up and the had to be expelled as far as Israelis were concerned. Complete zero sum situation. And therefore I think that the problem really began with some of the founding fathers in 1948. You needed more compassion. You need more understanding and of course what you had in effect was almost a military confrontation. And we are seeing echoes of that today. I go back to my early example had you had a Gena leading the Palestinian people prepared to fight within the constitution you may have had a very different Palestinian response to Israel. You may have had a more constitutional response. ,AHMED AKBAR,02:04:36:08>>>,And had you had a similar response from Israel you may have had a very different response from the Palestinian, Palestinians. If the Israelis had been more generous if they had been more understanding if they had seen the Palestinians as it were people who were living there and needed to be respected and more understanding for their plight I think you may have had a very different kind of relationship. ,INTERVIEWER:,What is your assessment of say the partition the United Nations revolution in 1947? That should have solved the whole thing I'm assuming.,AHMED AKBAR,02:05:08:20>>> ,Yes that's why I say a half century ago things could have been very different things could have been worked out very differently but that did not happen because again there are 2 or 3 people looking at not only politics in a very different but looking at history in a very different way. And so we are back to in a sense understanding of history and we really are back to those people who are interpreting history. People who are interpreting how history is to be seen. And you had also go back half a century you had also the Arab world in the grip of what we now look back and see as Arab nationalism. You had the emergence of someone like INAUDIBLE. So you had the um charisma of a man like Nasa (sp?) who could unite millions and millions of Arabs and what united them was Israel. So the hatred of Israel became part of an Arab nationalist deception of the world. ,AHMED AKBAR,02:06:02:25>>>,And you can never have something healthy being created from something that really at the root is linked to hatred. And therefore you had something that was not quite whole and balanced. It did not have an element of understanding or compassion. So on both sides from the Arab side you had this hatred for Israel what was the determination to remove it from the map and then you had from the Israel side the determination and the feeling that we are under siege that here is this tiny state surrounded by hundreds of millions of Arabs determined to remove it from the map. So again comparison and understanding which could have developed did not develop. And that is why almost 2 or 3 generations after the creation of Israel you being to see now the first steps being taken towards understanding and because of these steps people are now asking themselves what is it that is common between us. And because of that you have certain rabbis very distinguished rabbis, you have Muslim leaders among the Palestinians who are now finding out what is common between them. Finding a really moving towards a kind of common identity. And I think that's a very hopeful sign.,INTERVIEWER:,Many of us believed watching the news the past few years that this, this renewal INAUDIBLE was just about to reach its apex 2 ½ years ago when all of a sudden everything went got worse out of control.,AHMED AKBAR,02:07:34:06>>>,I think what how we need to understand what happens in Israel and particularly in relationship to the Arabs and the Palestinians it's not to see it in an isolated context but to see it in the context of what happens in the larger Middle East as a whole. So what happens in Iraq will have an impact on Israel and Palestinian. What happens in Egypt will have an impact and that is why I emphasis that it is much more important to begin to develop what is common between these cultures and civilizations. Between Jewish identity and Jewish religion Jewish culture and Muslim identity and Muslim culture and Muslim history. And if we can begin to develop what is common strength what is common then these political waves these political shock affects for instance if there's a coo in one country or if there's a turmoil in another country these will be minimized but if that doesn't happen then whatever happened in one county is immediately going to have an impact on another country. ,AHMED AKBAR,02:08:37:21>>>,And we have the classic example of Iraq in front of us where every time Saddam Hussein was under pressure from the world he immediately began to think about the Palestinians. So the poor Palestinians who themself are facing such a terrible situation and such a terrible ah dilemma and such a terrible plight are in a sense being used and exploited and misused by a lot of people outside that area so that they become a kind of ah um an excuse for people to use their own politics and to for people to entrench themselves in their own particular areas and their own countries.,INTERVIEWER:,As I understand you it requires a cultural people INAUDIBLE the solution first before a political is that sort of what you're? ,AHMED AKBAR,02:09:44:29>>>,What?,INTERVIEWER:,That, that before a global solution can work we need to have a cultural?,AHMED AKBAR,02:09:50:08>>>,Yes I would say that you require some de-escalation of the hatred and the violence. I would say that you require some beginning of understanding between the Jews and Muslims before you can have some kind of mutual respect or mutual understanding of each other. When that happens you then beginning to see political problems in a far greater perspective and you are able to do one thing which has been noticeably missing in the relationship between the Jews and the Muslims in the Middle East and that is compassion. It only when you being to look at each other and say I'm dealing with a human beings they're also like me they're human beings and if you're able to say the Israelis to say to the Palestinians these are basically, basically part of this Abrahamic tradition that we talk about. And vice versa for Palestinians to look at the Jews and say look we are dehumanizing the Jews but in fact they are basically part of the same structure.,AHMED AKBAR,02:10:48:09>>>,When I dehumanize Abraham or I dehumanize Moses I'm dehumanizing my own prophets. Moses, Abraham these are all prophets of Islam as much as they're prophets of the Jews. And there the Israelis have so much in common but unless this message is brought out through the media, through the schools, through education unless this is done then what you would have are the stories of hatred, the stories of violence which you see again and again on television. So that what you're really seeing is that the agenda is being set by the news on television where a child killed or a woman killed or a young man killed then completely upsets any attempt to dialogue. Completely negates the idea that there is something in common between these people and that they have to learn to live together in compassion.,INTERVIEWER:,Now one of the things you mentioned INAUDIBLE. You were comparing the proper modern leader to INAUDIBLE ,AHMED AKBAR,02:12:13:16>>>,When I look at the Middle East and I say we have a problem when you talk of democracy and the Muslim world you look around the Middle East and you see largely INAUDIBLE dictators or kings or dynasties. Even the Palestinian people who are led by Arafat and many of the INAUDIBLE who are in their own way revolutionaries in the 1950's and the 60's or fighting very difficult wars and trying to penetrate into Israel and they have this objective that Israel must be wiped out and moved from the face and so on. You look at them 30 years on 2 or 3 decades later and they've gone nowhere. There is no Palestinian state and Israel is very much there. There's no danger of disappearing from the face of the earth. And then we compare the achievement of someone like Gena who starts at exactly the same position at the same spot as Arafat which is zero and takes on the British empire and the Indian national congress which would go on and become the rulers of India in 1947 and is actually able to create the largest Muslim nation on earth in 1947 which is Pakistan. How do you do it? He did this because he worked within the constitution.,AHMED AKBAR,02:13:29:02>>>,He worked and was respected in turn both by the British and the India congress. So it's a very interesting what if question. What if there was a man not like Arafat? What if there was a man like Gena leading the Palestinian movement. What if there was man with that same kind of charisma as Gena and the same temperament and the same respect for the constituting and prepared to then lead this movement perhaps, perhaps there would have been a Palestinian state, perhaps there would have been two states living side by side, living in harmony, living with good relations with each other. Perhaps that would have happened. But this is one of the great what if questions and it goes back to the politics, the culture and society in the Middle East. ,INTERVIEWER:,So what is your evaluation of Arafat then as a leader?,AHMED AKBAR,02:14:18:25>>>,I would say that Arafat in a sense really is a leader up till the 1960's and 70's. That he really is now out of his time out of place ah and that at the end of his career we have seen that he's really got the Palestinian nowhere very much. He's got them right now in a INAUDIBLE that in fact you move ahead in a sense Arafat has to be moved out or above or bypassed because if that doesn't happen the Palestinian people ultimately and that has to be the bottom line for any leader the Palestinian people continue to suffer because who is being blockaded, who is denied access to jobs, whose homes are being blown up, whose young men are being INAUDIBLE up it is the Palestinians. And the reason of course it goes back to leadership. So unless a leaders can provide some kind of relief to its people you have a problem. And therefore you have a problem the Palestinians that Arafat has become the symbol of the Palestinian people and he has his own place in history because at one state he was a symbol the very symbol INAUDIBLE Palestinian identity if you like. Arafat today has become largely marginal, largely irreverent and largely a man who really has no answers for the 21st century.,AHMED AKBAR,02:15:30:06>>>,There you have a man who is symbolic of what is happening in the 1960's. You're now talking almost half a century ago. And we're talking of the 21st century. New times and new generations and new rhetoric and new leadership is needed. And that is what has to come. ,INTERVIEWER:,What about Abu Mazen the new Palestinian leader?,AHMED AKBAR,02:15:51:22>>>,The new Palestinian leader Abu Mazen seems to offer hope in the sense that he's ah what little one knows of him or sees of him ah a man with some dignity, a man who is at the same time not a walk away is not an easy person to negotiate with obviously. Ariel Sharon have had their differences and Mazen has stuck up for his demands and so on. We have to see because at this moment in time there is a crisis in leadership and that is a very important point I'm making because when a people like a Palestinian are not able to produce a series of leaders and they have been dominated by one leader like Arafat has for the last 40 years it will be a long time before new leadership immerges. And that becomes a great I think a great tragedy of a leader. A nationalist leader a founding father like Arafat who does not allow a young generation of leadership to immerge. And that's a very interesting um relationship that a lot of founding fathers have with the younger generation. Sometimes they simply don't allow younger people to grow. Ah it's it's um the example of the oak tree that the oak tree doesn't allow smaller trees to grow underneath it and wants to dominate that location.
ARCHIVE Sonia Ghandi
ARCHIVE of Sonia Gandhi, interim leader of Congress party
DN-LB-406 Beta SP
Various Subjects
Ghandi takes office and loses election, Margaret Thatcher, Golda Meir
[Uganda: Sources of the Nile]
TF1 News (Private - August 1982 ->)
AFP-74B 16mm; VTM-74B Beta SP; NET-131 DigiBeta (at 01:00:00:00); Beta SP